Supreme Court Hears Arguments in Carpenter v. United States
Carpenter v. United States, U.S.,
No. 16-402, argued November 29, 2017
Justice Neil M.
Gorsuch took center stage with his robust questions from the bench during
arguments in the case likely to determine whether the government must obtain a
warrant for historical cellphone location records from mobile phone service
providers. Present law requires only an order issued under the Stored
Communications Act. Such orders require only reasonable suspicion that a crime
has taken place, not the probable cause standard required for warrants.
suggested that the government is far astray of the Founding Father’s view of
property rights. He quipped, “You know, John Adams said one of the reasons for
the war was the use by the government of third parties to obtain information.” Justice
Gorsuch was referring to Writs of Assistance, which dramatically differ from
orders for historical cell site location information. The Writs of Assistance
empowered British troops, officials and loyal sympathizers to enter private
homes and conduct broad searches. Notwithstanding, it seems clear that Justice
Gorsuch favors a “property interest” approach to Fourth Amendment analysis,
rather than the “expectation of privacy” analytical model that has held fast
for over five decades, ever since the Supreme Court held that the Fourth Amendment
protects “people, not places” in Katz v. United States (389 U.S. 347
Roy Olmstead and approximately 50 others were involved in a massive bootlegging
operation. Federal agents listened in on
their telephone calls for months, gathering enough evidence for numerous
arrests and raids. In Olmstead v. United States, 277 U.S. 438
(1928), the Court held that the warrantless wiretapping was permissible because
the agents didn’t physically trespass on Olmstead’s property in order to
eavesdrop. Four decades later, the
Court’s decision in Katz marked a
sharp turn from years of precedent that focused on whether officers committed a
physical trespass in order to gather evidence.
Charles Katz made his living placing bets on basketball games across the
nation, in violation of federal law prohibiting interstate gambling. To avoid the possibility of the FBI tapping
his phone, Katz placed his bets in phone calls made from a series of public
telephone booths along Sunset Boulevard in Los Angeles. The agents believed that their wiretapping of
a public phone was lawful. The Court abandoned
its “trespass doctrine” analysis and Justice Potter Stewart famously wrote that
the Fourth Amendment “protects people, not places.”
This shift has
been several years in the making. In United States v. Jones (132 S.Ct.
945 (2012)), the Supreme Court held that installing a GPS tracking device to
monitor Jones’ vehicle movements constitutes a search under the Fourth Amendment.
The Court hearkened to a property rights analysis, holding that officers committed
a trespass against Jones’ “personal effects.”
In the Carpenter arguments, Justice Elena
Kagan queried whether the Jones holding should not directly lead
to a similar ruling for historical cell site location information. After all,
whether it is a GPS transmitter or a mobile phone, the pertinent information is
the location data. The difference, of course, is that Carpenter voluntarily
shared his location data with a third party—his mobile phone service provider. Much
of the questioning and briefing concerns the Court’s holdings in United States v. Miller (425 U.S.
435 (1976)) and Smith v. Maryland (442 U.S. 735
(1979)), which held that people do not have a reasonable expectation of privacy
in bank records (Miller) and pen
register record of numbers dialed (Smith)
when such records are disclosed to third parties. The Court’s decision in Carpenter v. United States may well
signal the death of the third-party doctrine.
At the end of
the day, the Court’s ruling will impact you and me far more than Carpenter. Carpenter
is serving a 116-year prison term for his eight robbery convictions. Justice
Alito asked, “Is any of this going to do any good? […] Is [Carpenter] going to
get anything suppressed?” It is almost certain that the “good faith” exception
to the exclusionary rule will prevent suppression of any of the evidence against
Carpenter (the good faith doctrine was recognized in United States v. Leon, 468 U.S. 897
(1984)). Because the investigators used a court order to obtain Carpenter’s
phone records, Carpenter can’t claim bad faith by the investigators, even if he
“wins” his case at the Supreme Court.
The Carpenter case not only may upend the
third-party doctrine, but the Court may move even closer to a strong property
rights analytical model for digital privacy. The Court may decide that the
Fourth Amendment protects people and places,
particularly cyberplaces. The ripples of
such a move would be felt for years to come as police develop investigative
methods to challenge the ever-changing technology used for criminal purposes.
Bus Interdiction Wasn’t a “Roadblock”
United States v. Wise, 2017 WL
6030636 (5th Cir. 2017)
Morris Wise was
a passenger on a Greyhound bus bound for Chicago from Houston. At a regular
stop, interdiction officers boarded the bus and the bus driver consented to a
search of the passenger compartment. One of the officers walked to the back of
the bus, passing Wise (who was pretending to sleep, though his eyelids were
tightly clenched shut).
On the return
pass, the officer asked Wise for his ticket and Wise produced a ticket for
“James Smith.” The officer thought the “very generic name” could be fake. There
were two bags sitting in the rack above Wise’s head and, when asked, Wise
grabbed one and opened it for the officer. He denied that the other bag was
took that bag and loudly asked other passengers if the bag belonged to any of
them. No one claimed the bag and the driver said he did not want an unclaimed
bag on the bus. So, officers took the bag off the bus, cut the lock and found
seven bricks of cocaine inside. An officer then asked—but did not demand—Wise
to step off the bus and chat. When asked to empty his pockets, Wise displayed
identification in his name (Morris Wise, not James Smith) and a key to the lock
that was cut from the backpack. Officers then arrested Wise.
The trial court
suppressed the cocaine evidence, ruling that the officers conducted a drug
enforcement checkpoint in violation of City of Indianapolis v. Edmond (531
U.S. 32 (2000)). The court of appeals, however, held that the interdiction
effort was clearly not a roadblock. The officers used the bus company schedule
to time their activities, but they didn’t stop the bus. The driver stopped at a
regular stop because the company required it. The passengers were free to get
off the bus, or stay on, and they did not have to talk to the officers. Unlike
a roadblock, no one was required to speak to the officers or answer questions.
argued that he was detained without reasonable suspicion. Wise stated he felt he
couldn’t get off the bus or decline to talk to the officers because there were
several officers around the bus and a marked police car with a drug detector
dog nearby, and because the officers didn’t tell Wise that he could refuse to speak
with them. However, the court observed:
officer gave the bus passengers no reason to believe they were required to
answer the questions.
officers didn’t draw or display weapons or make any intimidating movements.
officers didn’t block the aisle.
officer first spoke to Wise individually, in a friendly, conversational tone.
officer suggested to Wise that he couldn’t leave the bus or simply end the
In other words,
the officers were professional and knew to “talk nice, think mean.” The officers carefully avoided coercive
commands and actions that could reasonably viewed as creating custody, and that
made the difference between possible evidence suppression and the successful
Officer’s Search “Obviously” Illegal, Even
Though Authorized by Warrant
Sims v. Labowitz, 2017 WL 6031847 (4th
Trey Sims, 17 years
old, used his mobile phone to record himself fondling his erect penis. He sent the
video recordings and photos to his 15-year-old girlfriend. Sims indubitably
hoped the girlfriend would safeguard the images; however, the girlfriend’s
mother had a peek—enter the police.
seized both teens’ phones and obtained a search warrant requiring Sims to strip,
allowing comparison photos of his erect penis. However, when Sims got naked in
a room with three police officers and a camera, he could not rise to the
moment. The detective told Sims to masturbate in order to become erect. Sims
could not, so the detective photographed Sims’ flaccid penis. The following
day, the detective obtained a second search warrant, intending to require Sims
to try again, or to take Sims to a hospital for an injection that would produce
second warrant could be executed, the prosecutor intervened. Sims sued the
detective, claiming both an invasion of his sexual privacy and an unreasonable
search, and alleging that the detective forced Sims to participate in producing
child pornography by photographing his penis as Sims attempted to masturbate.
The trial court
granted qualified immunity on the Fourth Amendment claim and dismissed Sims’
claim for damages associated with alleged manufacturing of child pornography. The
court of appeals reversed the grant of qualified immunity, ruling that forcing
a teenage boy to masturbate to comply with a warrant authorizing police to
obtain photos of the teen’s erect penis counts as an unlawful search.
The court held
that “ordering Sims to masturbate to obtain an erection, required that Sims
perform a sex act in the presence of three armed officers. Such alleged conduct
necessarily invaded Sims’ bodily integrity even though no part of Sims’ body
was penetrated or physically harmed.” The court also stated that attempting to
force Sims to achieve an erection with three officers watching intruded “upon
an area in which our society recognizes a significantly heightened privacy
interest.” The court held the search unreasonable because of the weak need for
the evidence and “the outrageous scope of the sexually intrusive search and the
intimidating manner in which the search was conducted.”
might think of the detective’s investigative efforts, he did rely on a valid
search warrant issued by a judge. The dissenting judge would have granted
qualified immunity on that basis, quoting Judge Wilkinson, “If reasonable
mistakes were actionable, difficult questions of discretion would always be
resolved in favor of inaction, and effective law enforcement would be lost” (Torchinsky v. Siwinski, 942 F.2d
257, 261 (4th Cir. 1991)). However, the majority held the officer
should have known the warrant was unreasonable on its face.
Cocaine Lawfully Retrieved from…
Cole v. Commonwealth, 2017 WL
5493894 (Va. 2017)
arrested Abdul Rahman Cole for a warrant. During the inventory of Cole’s car,
the officer found an open alcohol container and some marijuana. When the
officer told the jail’s booking deputy about the drug charge, the deputy told
Cole that he had to submit to a strip search. Both the deputy and officer took
Cole to a private area and told him to remove his clothing.
his clothing, Cole was ordered to squat and the officer saw a white baggie
protruding from Cole’s anus. The officer told Cole to raise his hands, but Cole
instead plucked the baggie from the rear hole, stuck it into his mouth, and
tried to swallow it. After a brief struggle, the officer somehow got the
baggie, which held 14 smaller bags of cocaine.
Cole claimed the
strip search was unreasonable under the Supreme Court holding in Florence v. Board of Chosen Freeholders
(566 U.S. 318 (2012)). In Florence,
the Court upheld jail policies requiring a strip search of incoming inmates
placed into general population, “regardless of the circumstances of the arrest,
the suspected offense, or the detainee's behavior, demeanor or criminal
history.” Cole argued that, because he was arrested on minor charges, it had
not been determined that he would enter the general jail population. In theory,
Cole might have posted bail or have been taken before a magistrate and released
In Florence, the Supreme Court held that “correctional
officials have a significant interest in conducting a thorough search as a
standard part of the intake process,” and noted that correctional facilities “face
grave threats posed by the increasing number of gang members who go through the
intake process.” The Court also noted a thorough search helped identify health
conditions that might threaten the safety of the facility, inmates and staff. Though
Cole was not yet placed in general population, he was being held in a booking
area where prisoners were held in group cells.
Supreme Court held that the dangers of “disease, gang-based violence, and the
disruption of jail safety due to an underground economy trading in contraband”
cited in Florence applied to group
detention in a booking area. Thus, the decision to conduct a strip search of
prisoners charged with drug offenses, and who might bring drugs hidden in body
orifices or undergarments, was consistent with the Florence ruling. Even though the search was based on minor drug
charges and happened before Cole had the opportunity to see a magistrate or
post bail, the court ruled the search reasonable.
10th Circuit Does About-Face; Grants
Editor’s note: This case might seem
familiar to you. It should. It was covered in Xiphos in January here.
Pauly v. White, 874 F.3d 1197 (10th
On a dark and
stormy night, officers responded to a call of a probable drunk driver “swerving
all crazy.” The complainants followed the suspect driver, Daniel Pauly, and
flashed bright lights. Pauly pulled over and confronted the complainants, then
drove just a short distance home. The complainants called the police, provided
Pauly’s registration number, and said that Pauly was “throwing up gang signs.”
responded to the location of the confrontation. The officers agreed there was
no reason to arrest Pauly based on the information provided by the
complainants. However, the officers decided to locate Pauly, get his side of
the story, and learn whether he was intoxicated while driving.
remained with the complainants as the other two drove to Pauly’s house. The
officers surreptitiously—sort of—approached the house where Pauly and his
brother were moving around. The Pauly brothers heard the officers sneaking up
and called out, “Who are you, what do you want?” The officers laughed and said
that they had the house surrounded. Then they identified themselves as the
State Police (confirmed by dash camera recordings). The Pauly brothers later
claimed they did not hear the officers identify themselves as police and that
they feared the persons approaching their house were those involved in the road
brothers armed themselves and shouted they had guns. Daniel Pauly stepped into
a doorway and fired two blasts from a shotgun. Samuel Pauly aimed a handgun at an
officer. The officer fired and missed. The third officer, Ray White, had just
arrived from the scene of the initial report. Seeing Samuel Pauly aim at
another officer, Officer White fatally shot Samuel Pauly.
suing on his own behalf and on behalf of his brother’s estate, claimed the
brothers only heard someone shout, “We’re coming in.” Pauly asserted that the
officers precipitated the force encounter by sneaking up to the house without
announcing themselves or their purpose, leading the Pauly brothers to believe
that intruders were approaching.
Court decision of Tennessee v. Garner (471 U. S. 1
(1985)) requires that a warning be given, where feasible, prior to the use of
deadly force. Officer White gave no warning. The trial court denied qualified
immunity to Officer White. In Pauly v. White
(814 F.3d 1060 (10th Cir. 2016)), the Court of Appeals agreed
with the trial court. Viewing the evidence in the light most favorable to the
plaintiff, as the court must when deciding whether to apply qualified immunity
on a motion for summary judgment, the court held that reasonable officers
should have understood that their conduct would cause the Paulys to defend
their home and that might prompt deadly force against Samuel Pauly.
In contrast, on
rehearing by the appellate court sitting en
banc, 10th Circuit Court Judge Hartz observed in a dissenting opinion
that no “clearly established law suggests … that an officer … who faces an
occupant pointing a firearm in his direction must refrain from firing his
weapon but, rather, must identify himself and shout a warning while pinned
down, kneeling behind a rock wall.”
States Supreme Court reversed the 10th Circuit’s decision to deny
qualified immunity. The qualified immunity doctrine protects officers from federal
civil rights liability unless the officer violated a right that was clearly established
at the time. The Court held that Officer White “did not violate clearly
established law on the record described by the Court of Appeals panel.” The
Court pointedly reiterated the longstanding principle that “clearly established
law” should not be defined “at a high level of generality.” The 10th
Circuit, the Court said, “misunderstood the ‘clearly established’ analysis: It
failed to identify a case where an officer acting under similar circumstances”
had been determined by a court to violate the Fourth Amendment. Without
identifying such a case, the 10th Circuit couldn’t point to clearly
established law that should have given notice to Officer White that his conduct
White v. Pauly was a clear directive
to lower courts to extend extreme deference to officers in the qualified
immunity analysis. The Supreme Court once again told trial and appellate courts
to refrain from applying the “clearly established law” component of the
qualified immunity analysis at “too high a level of generality.” In other
words, unless the lower court can point to a controlling court precedent that
precisely and clearly gives notice to officers of how to act, the court should
grant qualified immunity. The Court’s decision bolstered the direction given
the recent cases of Mullenix v. Luna (136 S. Ct. 305
(2015)) (holding that qualified immunity should apply for an officer who
allegedly used deadly force in a high-speed pursuit) and Plumhoff v. Rickard (134 S. Ct. 2012
(2014)) (qualified immunity protects officers who fired upon the driver and
passenger of a fleeing car).
instructions from the Supreme Court, the 10th Circuit has now
reversed course and held that the officers are entitled to qualified immunity. Even
so, the appellate court issued a lengthy opinion that subtly, and strongly,
tries to state a case for why the two judges behind the initial 10th
Circuit opinion were right. In the court’s first Pauly decision, Judge Moritz
dissented and explained why the officers were entitled to qualified immunity. Once
again, Judge Moritz wrote a separate opinion; this time, however, she wrote
that her colleagues improperly rehashed issues and stated her “reservation
about the majority's analytical approach.”
One might look
at the history of this case and only see the Supreme Court correcting the lower
appellate court’s application of the law. I think there is more happening here.
The Supreme Court has taken due note of circuit court judges who have written
strong dissenting opinions when an appellate court rules against applying
qualified immunity. Not only will lawyers for police officers be more confident
in seeking qualified immunity, but judges on the losing side of a divided
decision have greater motivation to speak out in hopes that the Supreme Court
will vindicate their dissenting opinions.
Physician, Heal Thyself (or at Least Follow
the Doctor’s Advice)
Windham v. Harris County, 2017 WL
5245104 (5th Cir. 2017)
a medical doctor, ignored his own doctor’s medical advice to not drive and then
drove his car into the rear of another car. The passenger of the car Windham
struck called 9-1-1 and reported that he had been rear-ended by an impaired
driver. After the crash, Windham fell asleep behind the wheel. The responding
deputy found Windham seated behind the wheel, confused, his eyes bloodshot, and
unaware he had driven into the rear of another car. Windham told the deputy he
had been awake for 20 hours and he had taken a controlled painkiller.
asked Windham to perform field sobriety tests. Windham gave the deputy note
from a doctor stating that Windham had cervical stenosis and shouldn’t be
driving. The note also stated that Windham’s neck should not be extended, but
it didn’t provide any explanation of a “neck extension.” The deputy told
Windham that no one would “extend his neck.” Windham agreed to take a gaze
The tests were
inconclusive, so the deputy decided a drug recognition expert (DRE) should be
called. A DRE deputy arrived and asked Windham to repeat the gaze nystagmus
test. Although Windham said that he wouldn’t be able to do the test, he agreed
to take it again, and did not mention his neck condition to the DRE. The test
administered by the DRE was also inconclusive. Approximately 90 minutes after
the first deputy arrived, Windham was allowed to leave the crash scene.
alleging excessive force (arguing that the gaze nystagmus test was an
unnecessary use of force), unlawful detention, false arrest and failure to
accommodate a disability.
Officers can be
sued under the Americans
with Disabilities Act (ADA) for alleged failures to reasonably accommodate
disabilities in non-exigent contacts. Windham claimed the deputies were on
notice of his alleged disability and
the need to accommodate him. When a disabled person is dealing with the police,
the law requires the disabled person to request a necessary accommodation. If
the disabled person makes no request, the police can’t be held liable for
failing to accommodate the disability.
told the deputies that he physically could not perform the gaze nystagmus test
or that it might injure him. Although Windham was somewhat reluctant to perform
field sobriety tests and even expressed some doubt that he could perform them,
the court noted that “Vague statements like these cannot transform Windham’s
somewhat-obscure condition into one for which the limitations and necessary
accommodation were ‘open, obvious, and apparent’” (see Taylor v. Principal Financial Group Inc.
(93 F.3d 155, 164 (5th Cir. 1996)). Even if the note put the deputies on notice
that Windham had a neck-related disability, it didn’t amount to notice that
Windham’s disability limited him in performing the gaze nystagmus test. Nor did
the note or Windham himself give the deputies any notice of just what
accommodation Windham needed.
the court to apply the narrow exception applicable only to people whose
disabilities, limitations and necessary accommodations are “open, obvious, and
apparent.” Though his disability wasn’t as readily apparent as deafness,
blindness or confinement in a wheelchair, Windham argued that his doctor’s note
made his disability “obvious” to the deputies. The court disagreed.
The court also made
quick work of Windham’s claims of unlawful detention and false arrest. Windham
alleged the deputy had no reason to detain him after he found Windham sawing
logs behind the wheel, having driven his car into the trunk of the car in front
of him. Enough said? Reading the court decision, one can almost hear the judges
chuckling. Notwithstanding, the court listed multiple bases for detaining
Windham, including: “(1) Windham had rear-ended the car in front of him; (2)
the other driver's passenger had informed both the 9-1-1 operator and [the
deputy] that he believed Windham to be intoxicated; (3) the passenger had
further reported that Windham fell asleep behind the wheel while waiting for
the police; (4) Windham was taking prescription-strength painkillers; (5)
Windham had not slept for twenty hours; (6) Windham’s eyes appeared bloodshot;
and (7) Windham appeared confused and did not know that he had struck a car.”
detained for nearly 90 minutes after the crash. He claimed the length of the
detention and the temporary seizure of his driver license amounted to a de facto arrest. The court disagreed,
noting that there is “no constitutional stopwatch on traffic stops.” The
Supreme Court has stated that the critical factor in examining the length of
detention is whether the stop “last[s] no longer than is necessary to
effectuate [its] purpose” (Florida v. Royer (460 U.S. 491
(1983))). The court acknowledged that calling a DRE to the scene, which
extended the investigation, was necessary to determine whether Windham should
be arrested for impaired driving.
seemingly endless expansion of topics for required police training is the
obligation for officers to learn their legal obligations under the ADA. Recent
high-profile cases alert plaintiffs’ attorneys to add an ADA claim when
plausible. Like many other federal civil rights statutes, a victory under the
ADA carries an award of fees for plaintiffs’ attorneys. And, by the way, listen
when your doctor advises you really shouldn’t be driving.
following resources for general information about the ADA and police: www.lexipol.com/wp.../04/Officer-Interaction-with-Persons-with-Mental-Illness.ppt
Shoot or Don’t Shoot Based on a Piece of
Estate of Lopez v. Gelhaus, 871 F.3d
998 (9th Cir. 2017)
In the middle
of the day, two deputies were patrolling an area known for gang activity and
violent crime. They saw Andy Lopez carrying what appeared to be an AK-47 rifle,
holding it by the grip, with the muzzle pointed to the ground. Lopez appeared
to be in his mid- to late teens (he was, in fact, 13 years old). The deputies
called for urgent backup.
One of the
deputies turned on the overhead lights and chirped the siren. They then stopped
the patrol car about 40 feet behind Lopez and shouted for him to drop the gun.
Lopez paused for a few seconds and began to turn toward the deputies, rotating
the gun with him and beginning to raise the barrel.
A deputy shot
Lopez several times in the chest. When deputies approached Lopez, they discovered
that the gun was a plastic toy gun, but lacked the standard orange tip. Lopez
died at the scene and his estate sued the deputy who shot Lopez.
asked the court to apply qualified immunity and to dismiss the suit. To
determine whether to grant qualified immunity, the court asks whether the
deputy violated a constitutional right and whether that right was clearly
established at the time of the deputy’s act. As the courts have noted, “Qualified
immunity gives government officials breathing room to make reasonable but
mistaken judgments about open legal questions. When properly applied, it
protects ‘all but the plainly incompetent or those who knowingly violate the
law’” (Ashcroft v. al-Kidd, 563 U.S. 731
(2011) citing Malley v. Briggs, 475 U.S. 335 (1986)).
court held that qualified immunity should not be granted. The court questioned
whether Lopez acted in a threatening fashion as he turned and noted that Lopez
was only told to “drop the gun”—not told to “drop it or we’ll shoot.” Further,
the court speculated that Lopez only turned to see who was shouting at him.
dissented. In his dissent, Judge Wallace criticized the majority’s failure to
understand the danger perceived by the deputy. Judge Wallace wrote: “[t]he
record is replete with evidence that [the deputy] did not realize and could not
have discerned that [Lopez] was carrying a fake gun instead of an authentic
AK-47. First, it is undisputed that the gun was missing the bright orange tip
required by federal law. 15 U.S.C. § 5001(b)(1).
This tip immediately would have identified the gun as a fake; conversely, its
absence would suggest to an observer that the gun was real.”
commend Judge Wallace’s understanding of the danger presented by a suspect who
doesn’t drop the gun and instead turns toward deputies, he is mistaken that an
orange plastic tip would conclusively establish the gun as a fake that presents
no danger. In 2014, police in San Leandro, Calif., found two real AK-47 rifles
in a drug dealer’s home, both fitted with orange plastic tips. One can only
guess why a drug dealer would want to add orange tips to real assault rifles.
The clarity of
20/20 hindsight in this case shows the deputy shot a person with a fake AK-47.
In Graham v. Connor (490 U.S. 386
(1989)), the U.S. Supreme Court cautioned that “the ‘reasonableness’ of a
particular use of force must be judged from the perspective of a reasonable
officer on the scene,” rather than with retrospection. Though the majority in
this case cited other reasons for denying qualified immunity, assessing the
lethality of a gun based on seeing a small piece of orange plastic is just the
sort of 20/20 hindsight rejected by the Supreme Court.
Doorway Arrest Didn’t Violate Fourth
People v. Garvin, 2017 WL 4779544
Sean Garvin committed
several bank robberies by the time police found his fingerprint on a demand
note used at one of the banks. The same day investigators matched the
fingerprint to Garvin, officers went to Garvin’s home. They knocked, Garvin
answered the door, and an officer told Garvin that he was under arrest. Garvin
turned around and presented his hands for handcuffing while standing in the
doorway. The officers didn’t enter the home to arrest Garvin.
told Garvin his fingerprint and his girlfriend’s fingerprint were found on the
demand note, Garvin admitted to the robberies. However, he later asked the court
to suppress his confession, claiming he had been unlawfully arrested.
the police had violated the rule of Payton v. New York (445 U.S. 573
(1980)). In Payton, the U.S. Supreme
Court held “the Fourth Amendment ... prohibits the police from making a
warrantless and nonconsensual entry into a suspect’s home in order to make a
routine felony arrest.” In other words, there is a hard and fast line drawn at
the threshold of the home. To cross that line requires either a warrant or
exigent circumstances. The prosecution has a particularly heavy burden of
showing in court that an entry into a home to make a warrantless arrest is
based on sufficient probable cause and
exigent circumstances (Welsh v. Wisconsin, 466 U.S. 740
(1984)). A valid felony arrest warrant carries the inherent authority to enter
the named suspect’s home. Though there are some exceptions, generally, an
officer must have a search warrant to enter a third party’s home to arrest the
suspect, even if the officer possesses an arrest warrant for the particular
v. United States, 451 U.S. 204 (1981)).
correctly claimed there were no exigent circumstances because the officers had
his home surrounded. He also asserted that the officers didn’t take the time to
obtain a warrant because they wanted to interrogate him without counsel. Garvin
then urged the court to require a warrant anytime a suspect is arrested at home
(absent exigent circumstances).
rejected Garvin’s arguments; as long as a suspect comes to the door voluntarily
and opens the door, the suspect may be arrested. Only when officers cross the
threshold to take the suspect into custody does the warrant requirement, or a
legitimate exception thereto, apply.
If the Key Fits, Turn It?
United States v. Bain, 2017 WL 4563821 (1st Cir.
Yrvens Bain was
on probation following a series of drug trafficking convictions and some prison
time. Investigators made multiple controlled buys of heroin from Bain, but Bain
was ultimately arrested for an unrelated fight. Upon release from jail, Bain
told his probation officer that he would be living with his mother, but the
probation officer never saw Bain’s car parked at his mother’s house and never
saw Bain there.
his release, Bain sent a text message to a confidential informant. He wrote
that he’d been away for a few days, but was now back in the heroin supply
trade. Investigators directed the confidential informant to make another
controlled buy of heroin.
went to arrest Bain, they saw him walking out of a multifamily residence. They approached
Bain just as he reached his car, where he locked himself inside and swallowed
something. The officers got Bain out of the car, arrested him, and searched him,
finding a set of keys.
took the keys into the residence and tried the keys on the various apartments.
One key fit an entry door on a second-floor apartment. The officers obtained a
search warrant for that apartment and a subsequent search revealed a credit card-making
machine, latex gloves, plastic baggies with the corners torn off, Bain’s
identification, a parking ticket for Bain’s car, heroin, fentanyl, a razor
blade, assorted pills, a handgun with an obliterated serial number and a
magazine containing bullets.
Bain asked the
court to suppress the items found, claiming that the act of trying the key in
the lock was, in fact, a warrantless search prohibited by the Fourth Amendment.
The court began its analysis by questioning whether the lock itself was within
the home’s curtilage. If so, under the Supreme Court decision in Florida v. Jardines (569 U.S. 1
(2013)), turning the key was a search. The scope of the curtilage of a home is
determined by considering four factors: the proximity to the home, whether it
is fenced or otherwise enclosed, the nature of the use of the area, and the
efforts the resident takes to screen the area from public view (United States v. Dunn, 480 U.S. 294
The court held
that inserting and turning the key was a search. The lock was certainly
proximate to the home and it is the very tool used to screen the home from
public view or entry. The court further held that “without the information
obtained by turning the key, there was no probable cause to issue a warrant to
search” the apartment. Thus, the warrant was invalid.
Still, at the
end of the day, Bain becomes a five-time loser. The court held that the
officers reasonably relied on the search warrant. Applying the good faith rule
of United States v. Leon (468 U.S. 897
(1984)), the evidence was admissible against Bain. Though they were technically
mistaken in trying the key in the door, the fact that the officers took the
trouble to obtain a warrant to search the apartment showed their good faith and
saved the evidence from suppression.
Your Call: Search or No Search?
Collins v. Commonwealth, 790 S.E.2d 611 (Va. 2016), cert. granted sub nom Collins v. Virginia, No. 16-1027
(U.S. Sept. 28, 2017)
on an orange and black Suzuki, modified for drag racing, eluded police on two
occasions within a few weeks. During the second event, an officer abandoned the
pursuit after the cyclist hit 140 miles per hour. Using dash-camera footage,
the officer obtained a photo of the license plate and the rider. The rider’s
face was obscured by a tinted helmet face shield.
Using the plate
number, the officer contacted the most recent plate registrant, Eric Jones, who
said that he had sold the bike to Ryan Collins.
the officer heard Collins’ name broadcast on the radio in connection with an
unrelated matter (Collins was at the DMV, trying to register a stolen Acura
sedan). Both officers who had chased the Suzuki responded to Collins’ location
and spoke with him. Collins said that he didn’t know anything about the Suzuki
and hadn’t ridden a motorcycle in many months. As the first officer was
speaking with Collins, the other officer checked Facebook and found a picture
of the Suzuki parked next to the same stolen Acura in the driveway of a house.
Collins denied knowing anything about the bike or the house.
About an hour
later, the officer found the house. He saw a motorcycle partially covered by a
tarp. He could see the same distinctive chrome accents that were on the bike he
had chased. The location and angle also appeared the same as the photo on
Collins’ Facebook page. The officer walked a car length or two onto the
property, lifted the tarp, and instantly recognized the Suzuki.
convicted of receiving stolen property and sentenced to prison. He argued that
the officer made an illegal search at his home.
there a search?
so, was the warrantless search justified by an exception to the warrant
exception and why does it apply here?
Supreme Court recently agreed to consider Collins’ appeal. Stand by, and we’ll
see whether your reasoning and conclusions match the justices of the high
Rear Seat Search Allowed to Gain Trunk
United States v. Mirabal, 2017 WL
5761191 (10th Cir. 2017)
A deputy had
reliable information (a tip from other government agents) that Gabriel Mirabal,
a convicted felon, had an assault rifle in the trunk of his car. The deputy saw
Mirabal speeding and stopped him. When the deputy opened the trunk to search
for the assault rifle, he saw a large speaker box blocking his view into the
deeper part of the trunk. He tried to move the speaker box, but could not. Based
on his military experience, the deputy knew that an assault rifle could be
hidden behind the speaker box.
The deputy went
to the back seat, intending to try to fold down the seat and get a look at the
back of the speaker box. First, however, he pulled down a folding recessed
armrest. When he pulled down the armrest, the deputy saw a package of cocaine.
challenged the scope of the deputy’s search, claiming that the search was
constitutionally flawed. He argued that the space behind the speaker box was
too small to hide an assault rifle, that the deputy could have crawled over the
speaker box and viewed behind it, that the deputy did not know whether the rear
seat had a trunk-access panel, and that the armrest was too small to hide a
The court made
short work of Mirabal’s arguments, however, citing elements of the deputy’s
testimony. The deputy testified his familiarity with the size of rifles. He
also testified about his knowledge that many car trunks can be accessed through
the back seat and that is sometimes the only practical way to search the rest
of the trunk. The court had little difficulty in ruling against Mirabal because
the deputy carefully connected the probable cause to search the trunk to the
progressive steps of the search. The court held that the deputy’s “effort to
see into the back of the trunk was reasonable.” Though only a traffic stop,
building the case step by step and carefully reporting the reasons for taking
the search to the back seat ensured admission of the evidence and the resulting
Warrant Check for Passenger Upheld
was a passenger in car stopped for a vehicle registration violation. The
officer asked both the driver and Martinez for identification. After
discovering the driver had a valid license and no warrants, the officer checked
Martinez for warrants and found he had an outstanding warrant. The time to
check warrants for Martinez was between one and five seconds. The officer arrested
Martinez within three minutes of the initial stop.
During a search
incident to arrest, the officer found a pipe with methamphetamine in Martinez’s
pocket. Martinez asked the court to suppress the drug evidence, claiming that
the officer violated the Fourth Amendment when he asked Martinez for identification.
The Utah Supreme Court held that the officer’s brief extension of the traffic
stop to check for warrants on the passenger did not violate his rights.
The court cited
substantial precedent from other courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court,
holding that the risks associated with traffic stops are greater when there are
passengers and those risks justify warrants checks on passengers: “Because
passengers present a risk to officer safety equal to the risk presented by the
driver, an officer may ask for identification from passengers and run
background checks on them as well” (United States v. Rice, 483 F.3d 1079
(10th Cir. 2007)). In Rodriguez v. United States (135
S.Ct. 1609 (2015)), the Supreme Court stated because “traffic stops are
‘especially fraught with danger to police officers,’” an officer may “need to
take certain negligibly burdensome precautions in order to complete his mission safely.”
The Utah high
court held that “running Martinez’s background was a ‘negligibly burdensome
precaution’” that did not unreasonably extend the traffic stop. Moreover, the
officer didn’t order or compel Martinez to identify himself; he politely asked
for identification and Martinez cooperated. Using the language of consent,
being professionally polite and quickly performing the warrants check persuaded
the court that the evidence should not be suppressed. Another reminder for
officers to “talk nice, think mean.” State v. Martinez, 2017 WL 3262125
Blind Date Ends Badly
New Year’s Eve
didn’t end well for Louis Roberson. The evening started auspiciously. Roberson met a blind date in the parking lot
of Slick Willie’s Pool Hall, and within a few minutes, he had enticed his date
to try marijuana for the first time. She seemed happy to go along. Who knew
where the evening might lead?
But then four
police cars drove into the parking lot. The officers were conducting directed
enforcement in response to Slick Willie’s request for additional patrol. The
officers were also aware the parking lot was the location of many fights and
drove toward Roberson’s car, but did not block his exit path. They shone
takedown and spot lights on the newly acquainted couple. As two officers strode
“resolutely” toward the car, Roberson hastily began shoving things under the
seat. The officers told Roberson and his date to show their hands. The woman
immediately complied. The officers repeated their commands, drew their guns and
advanced toward Roberson. Even facing drawn guns, Roberson continued to push
something under the seat.
After three or
four commands from the officers, Roberson put his hands on the steering wheel. The
officers could smell marijuana coming from the car. They searched the car and found
a gun under Roberson’s seat where he had been making stuffing motions. They
also found a bag of marijuana in the center console. Roberson was charged with
being a felon in possession of a gun.
claimed that he was “seized” without reasonable suspicion, and that the drug
and gun evidence should be suppressed. In Terry v. Ohio (392 U.S. 1 (1968)), the Supreme Court held that
a “seizure” occurs when an “officer, by means of physical force or show of
authority, has in some way restrained the liberty of a citizen.” Later, the
Court held that a person is seized “only if, in view of all of the
circumstances surrounding the incident, a reasonable person would have believed
that he was not free to leave” (United States v. Mendenhall, 446
U.S. 544 (1980)).
question in Roberson’s case is when he was seized. Roberson was eventually
arrested; he was certainly seized then. But did the officers seize Roberson as
they shouted commands for him to show his hands—commands that he ignored? Roberson
claimed he was seized when officers shouted commands—before officers smelled
the marijuana and before they had reasonable suspicion to seize him.
Deciding when a
reasonable innocent person would feel free to leave or to refuse an officer’s
request during an encounter is highly fact-dependent. Courts have found that
blocking a person’s path, holding onto a person’s identification or other
property, displaying pointed guns or using emergency lights can all lead to
finding a person was seized. However, not every encounter where an officer
gives instructions or asks questions means a person is actually seized.
number of officers and the use of spotlights and takedown lights, the court
held Roberson was not seized at the time officers told him to show his hands. Foremost,
Roberson didn’t comply; he didn’t submit to the officers’ authority. The
Supreme Court has held that there is no seizure when a person doesn’t actually
submit to the officers’ commands or show of force (Brendlin v. California, 551 U.S. 249
The two judges
in the majority agreed that Roberson was not seized prior to the point that
officers had reasonable suspicion of criminal activity. The concurring opinion
went so far as to state that the officers’ commands to show hands did not even constitute
a show of authority. Additionally, the court felt the number of officers was
reasonable when factoring the time of night and the high-crime location.
illustrates effective and safe police work that didn’t compromise Roberson’s constitutional
rights. Though the officers were rightfully cautious, they were careful to not
block Roberson in. Nor did they show force, drawing their weapons, until
Roberson began stuffing something—later found to be a gun—under his seat. The concurring
judge observed, “If there is a less ‘intrusive’ way to safely and effectively
patrol such an area and conduct consensual interviews, it is not apparent to
me.” United States v. Roberson, 864 F.3d
1118 (10th Cir. 2017)
Death Sentence Overturned Because Defendant
Wore Stun Belt in Court
was convicted of killing three people in 1996. Though the trial lasted eight months,
the jury only took one day to recommend the death penalty. During the penalty
hearing, Stephenson wore an electronic restraint (stun belt) under his
clothing. Several jurors later stated they were aware of the bulky belt.
petitioned for habeas corpus relief
from the federal court. He alleged that his trial attorney was ineffective for
failing to object to the stun belt. A federal trial court ruled that Stephenson
had not been prejudiced by wearing the stun belt. The court opined that even if
jurors observed the belt during the penalty phase, the jury could already
conclude that Stephenson, having murdered three people, was a dangerous person.
The court of
appeals ordered a new penalty hearing for Stephenson. The court held there were
no findings on record to show that Stephenson was likely to misbehave in court.
The court also held there was no way to determine what impact the belt had on
those jurors who saw it, or what they told other jurors about the belt.
Restraints Policy (available in the Custody manual) provides that officers
obtain prior judicial approval for the use of an electronic restraint device in
a courtroom. The policy also prescribes that the judge be given an overview of
the device operation. Prosecutors should be attuned to governing appellate
court decisions requiring that the trial judge is informed of facts supporting
the use of an electronic restraint device in court, particularly when it may be
visible to jurors. That wasn’t done in Stephenson’s case and now he is headed
back to court for a new sentencing hearing, 21 years after the murders. Stephenson v. Neal, 2017 WL 3319296
(7th Cir. 2017)
Inmate’s Cell Phone Inside a Halfway House
May Be Searched Without Cause
was convicted of failure to register as a sex offender. After his prison term,
he was released to a halfway house under a court order that required him to
obey parole and halfway house rules. The halfway house rules barred residents
from possessing cell phones in the facility.
found Jackson with a cell phone inside the facility. Though the officer
returned the phone, he warned Jackson the phone would be searched upon any
further violation. Within a few days, a staff member found another resident
with Jackson’s cell phone. A subsequent search revealed pornographic images. A
forensic examination discovered 37 images of known child pornography. Jackson
was convicted of possession of child pornography.
Jackson claimed the warrantless search of his phone was unconstitutional and
the child pornography should have been suppressed. Jackson argued that Riley v. California (134 S.Ct. 2473
(2014)) prohibited officers from searching his phone without a warrant. In Riley, the Supreme Court held that
officers must generally obtain a search warrant before searching data on a cell
phone that is seized incident to an arrest.
Court has approved suspicionless searches of parolees whose parole terms
include random search provisions. In Samson v.
California (547 U.S. 843 (2006)), the Court held that “the essence of
parole is release from prison, before the completion of sentence, on the
condition that the prisoner abide by certain rules during the balance of the
sentence.” Because Samson knew that the terms of his parole dictated he could
be searched by a police officer at any time, the Court ruled he did not have a
legitimate expectation of privacy.
Citing Samson, the court of appeals held that
Jackson lacked a legitimate expectation of privacy in his phone and the
government had substantial interests that justified the search. Note that the
decision does not mean any officer may search a parolee’s cell phone at any
time. The holding in Jackson is based
on the parole conditions and halfway house rules that specifically banned cell
phones in the facility and warned of suspicionless searches of property inside
the halfway house. United States v. Jackson, 2017 WL
3429837 (8th Cir. 2017)
Confession Is Good for the Soul—Bad for
Bauzó-Santiago wrote a
note to the judge presiding over his trial for illegal possession of a firearm.
The note stated, “I have a situation with my lawyer ... he has no interest in
my case [and] I do not have good communications with the lawyer ... Because of
these reasons I would like to ask of the Honorable Judge to change counsel ...
if possible. I want to take advantage to notify you that I, Jaime Bauzó-Santiago
... have always accepted my responsibility as to guilt, the only thing that I
ask of you is that the time for the weapons law crime be a reasonable one.” Bauzó-Santiago
signed the note.
surprisingly, the court read the note and disclosed its contents to the
prosecutor and defense counsel. Even less surprisingly, Bauzó-Santiago was
appealed and told the court of appeals that the note was part of a plea bargain
discussion. As such, the note should not have been considered by the judge. I
haven’t seen the appellate brief, but perhaps it said, “I know that I am
guilty, you know that I am guilty, I never said that I wasn’t guilty. But it is
unfair for you to find me guilty just because I said that I am guilty (oh,
yeah, plus the testimony of the officer who found the gun).”
you shocked to learn that the court of appeals held that Bauzó-Santiago’s letter
to the judge was admissible? He lost the appeal and went to prison without
passing “Go” and collecting $200. We catch the dumb ones. United
States v. Bauzó-Santiago, 2017 WL 3392672 (1st Cir. 2017)
No Coercive Trickery after a Burglar Rats
on His “Victims”
burgled the home of Austin and Spivey. Twice, in
fact. He found the takings so good the first time that he returned. Austin and
Spivey had their own criminal enterprise involving credit card fraud and they
stored the ill-gotten high-end merchandise at their home. Austin and Spivey
reported the first burglary and installed a new alarm system. Police were
summoned to the second burglary by the burglar alarm. Spivey also called the
police, but not before he hid some of his contraband.
Spivey didn’t know the police had already caught Hunt. Nor did they know that
Hunt admitted he burglarized the home twice because of the abundance of high-end
goods. Hunt told officers the home contained devices for forging credit cards.
one acting as a crime scene technician, went to the home and asked to inspect
it for evidence of the burglary. Spivey invited them in. The pseudo-tech
pretended to dust for fingerprints. Spivey provided surveillance video of the
officers saw a credit card embossing machine, stacks of credit cards and a
trove of new, expensive goods, the officers told Spivey and Austin that they
investigated credit card fraud. The officers asked to search the entire house. Austin
consented. Spivey signed a waiver of a search warrant.
found a weapon, drugs and additional evidence of fraud. Austin and Spivey were
charged with several crimes. They claimed that Spivey’s consent to search was
the product of an illegal trick.
observed that Austin had made a tactical decision to call the police,
apparently hoping that the police would catch the burglar. A ruse can
invalidate consent when officers claim legal authority they lack, or when an
officer falsely claims there are exigent circumstances. Here, however, “the
officers’ ‘ruse’ was a relatively minor deception that created little, if any,
coercion … Prior planning proves that Austin and Spivey understood that asking
for the officers’ assistance came with the risk that their own crimes would be
discovered.” United States v. Spivey, 2017 WL
2782852 (11th Cir. 2017)
Officers Sued for Withholding Exculpatory Evidence
jurisdictions across the nation, prosecutors are taking a more aggressive
stance on Brady/Giglio
lists. These lists include the names of officers who are deemed tainted in
the prosecutors’ opinion. In many cases, prosecutors may refuse to file charges
where the listed officers are witnesses. Being placed on a Brady/Giglio list is certainly damaging to an officer’s reputation
and may even be a death knell to a career, or at the very least, to promotion.
Brady/Giglio lists take their name from two United
States Supreme Court decisions addressing allegations of withholding
exculpatory evidence, Brady v. Maryland (373 U.S. 83
(1963)) and Giglio
v. United States
(405 U.S. 150 (1972)). The Brady rule
requires prosecutors to turn over any material exculpatory evidence to the
defense. The rule encompasses evidence that could tend to show the defendant
isn’t guilty or should receive a lesser sentence, or evidence that impacts the credibility
of a witness. The sanction for failure to turn over Brady material is suppression of evidence, even if it was
inadvertently withheld. Evidence may be suppressed even if the police don’t
tell the prosecution about the evidence.
Court reinforced the vitality of the Brady
rule in the recent decision of Turner v. United States (137 S.Ct. 1885 (2017)), although the
Court held that the burden rests on the defendant to show that the undisclosed
evidence prejudiced the trial to the degree that it undermined confidence in
In Giglio v. United States, the Supreme
Court held that a prosecutor must disclose a deal for favorable treatment in
exchange for a witness’s testimony. The Giglio
decision and its progeny (United States v. Agurs, 427 U.S. 97
(1976) and Kyles v. Whitley, 514 U.S. 419 (1995))
mean that the prosecution must tell the defense about potential blemishes on
the credibility of witnesses, including and especially, police officers. In Kyles, the Court imposed the duty on
prosecutors to seek out such information and disclose it to the defense.
A new case
signals the liability risks in failing to scrupulously follow the rules of Brady v. Maryland and Giglio v. United States. Alvarez was
arrested for burglary and public intoxication. After an altercation in a
holding cell, Alvarez was charged with assault on a public servant, a
third-degree felony. He pleaded guilty and was ultimately ordered to serve
eight years in prison.
five years into his prison term, a video came to light showing that Alvarez was
innocent of the assault. Alvarez filed a writ of habeas corpus alleging his
innocence. After reviewing the video, the court agreed that the writ should be
granted and Alvarez should be released.
suit against the city and several officers. A jury awarded Alvarez $2 million
in damages and the parties stipulated to attorneys’ fees of $300,000. On
appeal, the city argued that the defendants were entitled to qualified
immunity. Even if the prosecution withheld the obviously exculpatory video
recording, Alvarez pleaded guilty without a trial.
It may well be
that Alvarez pleaded guilty as part of plea bargain. Notwithstanding, the court
cited precedent establishing that a person who pleads guilty is not
constitutionally entitled to be provided with impeachment evidence. The court
extended this reasoning to exculpatory evidence, holding that the prosecution
wasn’t constitutionally required to show Alvarez the exculpatory video
recording. Thus, even though Alvarez may not have committed a crime, the fact
that he entered a guilty plea entitled the defendants to win on the civil
One might argue
that the officers and the city narrowly avoided a $2.3 million payout due to a
technicality. But the technicality was Alvarez’s choice to plead guilty. The
clear lesson of this case is to remember that failure to disclose exculpatory
evidence can lead to liability for civil rights violations—and the damages can
be significant. Alvarez v. City of Brownsville, 860
F.3d 799 (5th Cir. 2017)
Historical CSLI Admissible in Rabbinical Kidnap
and Torture Trial
collective authority to act as a beth din
rabbinical court, a trio of Orthodox Jewish rabbis—Binyamin Stimler, Jay
Goldstein and Mendel Epstein—authorized and carried out kidnappings and torture
sessions for Jewish men who declined to divorce their wives. The rabbinical
court orders, psak kefiah, authorize the
use of force against a husband to coerce cooperation in the religious divorce
and his fellow clergy carried out the kidnappings and paid enforcers to conduct
the torture and beatings. An undercover agent met with the three rabbis and
claimed she needed help in persuading her husband to grant a divorce. Rabbi
Epstein told the undercover agent, “What we’re doing is basically gonna be
kidnapping a guy for a couple of hours and beatin’ him up and torturing him.” When
the rabbis, the paid enforcers and the agent met to carry out the kidnapping,
the rabbis were arrested.
argued that prosecuting them for kidnapping and torture infringed on their free
exercise of their religion. An expert witness, Rabbi Yitzchok Breitowitz, declared
that it was religious commandment to use physical force against husbands who
did not cooperate with the divorce process. The court disagreed, finding that
the rabbis could worship without kidnapping and without hiring thugs to torture
men who failed to obey their religious authority. Alternatively, the court held
that the government has a compelling interest in thwarting kidnapping and that
criminal prosecution was “the least restrictive way of achieving that interest.”
case made headlines because it exposed little known beliefs and practices
within the ultra-Orthodox Jewish community, the case is also notable because it
adds to the current dialog on cell site location information (CSLI). The
prosecution used a court order issued under the Stored Communications Act to
obtain CSLI. The CSLI placed Rabbi Goldstein’s phone at certain locations
related to the charged crimes. The rabbis argued that the prosecution should
have obtained a warrant. As have most other courts, the 3rd Circuit Court of
Appeals held that no warrant was required because Rabbi Goldstein did not have
a reasonable expectation of privacy in his CSLI. Thus, the CSLI evidence was
Just a few weeks
ago, the Supreme Court agreed
to hear the appeal in United States
v. Carpenter (819 F.3d 880 (6th Cir. 2016), cert. granted, --- S.Ct. ----, 2017 WL 2407484 (Mem) (June 5, 2017)).
Before the end of the Court’s next term, the issue of whether the Fourth
Amendment requires a search warrant for historical CSLI will be settled. United States v. Stimler, 2017 WL
2884388 (3rd Cir. 2017)
Police Error in Identification Overcome by
At 1300, on Oct.
30, 2013, Conrad Gonzalez should have been at a supervised visit with his young
daughter. Instead, he chose to rob a bank. Officers who responded to the silent
alarm suspected Gonzalez and his girlfriend because they had been involved with
other bank robberies.
One of the
investigators printed photos of Gonzalez’s driver license and state ID card
taken three years prior. He showed the photos to the teller who was robbed. The
court noted the photographs were “of poor quality, grainy, dark, of low
resolution and printed on plain office paper.” The teller had already filled
out a form with a description of the robber. She told the investigator she
didn’t recognize the man in the photos.
teller failed to make a direct connection to Gonzalez, other people soon came
forward to do so. After a photo taken from bank surveillance cameras was
released to the media, a sandwich shop worker recognized the distinctive
Chicago Bears sweatshirt worn by the robber. She had seen a new identical
sweatshirt in the shop’s dumpster (located a few blocks from the bank). Police retrieved
the sweatshirt from the dumpster and found $20 bills in the pockets. The robber
had asked for $20 bills from the teller. (Who robs a bank and doesn’t keep the
money? We catch the dumb ones!)
addition, the mother of Gonzalez’s girlfriend called police and reported that
the photo of the robber resembled Gonzalez. Moreover, she had given him an
identical sweatshirt for Christmas. She told police that Gonzalez had lost
weight since his driver license photo was taken and she directed them to a
Facebook photo. Using the Facebook photo, the investigator assembled a six-pack
photo line-up; the teller identified Gonzalez as the robber.
also turned up video footage connecting Gonzalez to the sweatshirt. Four days
prior to the bank robbery, Gonzalez’s girlfriend robbed a restaurant. Gonzalez
drove. Just after the robbery, he stopped to fill up the gas tank. Gas station
surveillance photos showed him wearing his (unlucky?) Chicago Bears sweatshirt.
presented a detailed alibi for the time of the robbery. He included details of
his scheduled visit with his daughter. The social worker who supervised the
visits always kept meticulous records of Gonzalez’s texts, phone calls and
activities during the supervised visits. Those records, coupled with
surveillance video at a McDonald’s restaurant, gutted Gonzalez’s alibi.
challenged the identification procedures used by the investigator. The
prosecution conceded that showing the teller Gonzalez’s driver license and
state identification card within minutes of the robbery was both suggestive and
unnecessary. The investigator had not been trained in administering a proper
photo line-up (Lexipol customers should refer to the guidelines in the Lexipol
Eyewitness Identification Policy). Even so, the prosecution argued that other
evidence overcame the constitutionally defective eyewitness identification
court agreed. It held that the investigator’s identification procedures constituted
“significant error,” and it found problems with the second identification
procedure. Nonetheless, the court upheld Gonzalez’s conviction because other
evidence of his guilt was overwhelming: “An error in the admission of
identification evidence is harmless if the remaining evidence would have
persuaded any reasonable jury beyond a reasonable doubt of the defendant’s
and policy on proper eyewitness identification could have easily prevented the
error and stopped this appeal at the beginning. Administering a proper
eyewitness identification procedure isn’t particularly difficult, but certain
constitutionally prescribed steps must be followed. Take the time to learn how
to do it right and avoid the risk of losing an otherwise solid conviction. For
additional tips on eyewitness identification, watch this on-demand
webinar.) United States v. Gonzalez, 2017 WL
2928780 (7th Cir. 2017)
Pretext Commercial Vehicle Inspection Stop Held
received a tip that a tractor-trailer with a white box trailer and Michigan
license plates was carrying illegal drugs. Told that he would need to observe
his own basis for a stop, a trooper sat near the freeway watching for the truck.
The trooper and a partner stopped the truck and performed a North
American Standard Level III commercial vehicle inspection.
As the troopers
were conducting the truck inspection, another trooper deployed a detector dog
for a sniff. Following a positive final response, and with the consent of the
driver, Orozco, the troopers searched the sleeper cab. They found 26 pounds of
methamphetamine and 6 pounds of heroin.
the court to suppress the drugs, asserting that the Level III truck inspection
was an impermissible pretext and the trooper’s only motivation in stopping him
was to search for drugs. The court agreed. The drugs were excluded as evidence.
understanding the court’s logic and the interplay with the permissible pretext
doctrine of Whren v. United States (517 U.S. 806
(1996)) will help officers avoid similar results. Each state that receives
federal highway funds must have a commercial vehicle safety plan. The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
state public safety partners conduct
approximately 3.4 million truck and bus roadside inspections each year. The
commercial vehicle inspection and traffic enforcement programs are intended to
reduce serious driver and vehicle violations, prevent crashes and save lives. Reliable
estimates show that commercial vehicle enforcement and inspections prevent
roughly 15,000 crashes and save about 500 lives each year.
Orozco began his appellate argument with one strong
point in his favor. The prosecution conceded there was no reasonable suspicion
for the stop, though the reasons for this critical concession are not entirely
clear from the record. Thus, the court was left to consider whether stopping
Orozco for reasons unrelated to administrative purposes of the motor carrier
safety plan scheme was an unlawful pretext.
In Whren v.
United States, the Supreme Court ruled that no Fourth Amendment violation
occurs for a traffic stop based on a minor violation when the violation is a
pretext rather than the actual motivation for the stop. The Supreme Court
reaffirmed its rejection of subjective pretext as an unreasonable basis for a
stop in Arkansas
v. Sullivan (532 U.S. 769 (2001)).
These permissible-pretext cases dealt with drug crime investigation
stops where the officers based the stops on traffic violations—not on an
administrative or regulatory inspection scheme. However, the Supreme Court has scrutinized
the subjective motives of police officers in a number of administrative search
cases and certain special-needs searches (United States v. Knights, 534 U.S. 112 (2001)).
The administrative inspection scheme in Orozco’s case allowed officers to randomly stop
commercial vehicles and conduct limited safety inspections without any suspicion. Investigatory purposes and motives may not matter in
pretext stops that follow witnessed violations, but motives matter when relying
on administrative search doctrines.
The prosecution conceded “that, but for the tip, the
officers would not have stopped” Orozco. One of the troopers testified it was
“common knowledge that if you suspect criminal activity, that you can use your
administrative powers to make a stop.” To be clear, that’s not the law. If an officer suspects criminal activity and observes a violation—even a minor
traffic violation—a lawful stop can follow. But if an officer suspects criminal
activity and there is no reasonable suspicion of a violation—as the prosecution
conceded in this case—the stop is unlawful.
Thus, the court’s interpretation of the pretext
doctrine, and its decision that the stop of Orozco was illegal, is narrowly
limited to a situation where the prosecution can show no evidence of at least
some reasonable suspicion of a violation. The court emphasized “that the
presence of a criminal investigatory motive, by itself, does not render an administrative
stop pretextual ... Nor does a dual motive—one valid, and one impermissible.” United States v. Orozco, 2017
WL 2367983 (9th Cir. 2017)
Court Accepts Cell Site Location Information Petition
As we’ve followed the rapid development of Fourth Amendment
jurisprudence related to cell site location information (CSLI), we’ve told you
about several cases likely to garner review by the U.S. Supreme Court. Following
prediction last month that the Court would soon grant review in one of the
cases we featured, the Court agreed to hear the case of Timothy
Carpenter’s armed robbery convictions based, in part, on CSLI. The Court
will consider whether warrants are needed to obtain historical cell site data
during criminal investigations (Carpenter v. United States, 819 F.3d
880 (6th Cir. 2016), cert. granted,
2017 WL 2407484 (June 5, 2017)).
Just this month, the 5th Circuit became the second federal
circuit court of appeals to hold that no warrant is required for prospective or real-time CSLI (see United States v. Wallace and United States v. Riley, below). In both
the Carpenter and Wallace cases, the courts relied on the
third-party doctrine, holding that no “search” occurs because the phone user
voluntarily reveals the CSLI to a third party—the cellular service provider—and
investigators obtain the CSLI from the service provider. A number of state and
federal courts have concurred that no warrant is required for historical CSLI,
also relying on the third-party doctrine.
Some legal scholars, however, have voiced concern that the
traditional third-party doctrine is due for an overhaul. It is based on cases
dealing with paper bank records and pen register information from a landline
telephone (United States v. Miller, 425
U.S. 435 (1976); Smith v. Maryland, 442
U.S. 735 (1979). In her concurring opinion in the GPS tracking case of United States v. Jones (132 S.Ct. 945
(2012)), Justice Sonia Sotomayor wrote that it “may be necessary to reconsider
the premise that an individual has no reasonable expectation of privacy in
information voluntarily disclosed to third parties.”
No matter what the outcome in Carpenter, the Court is almost certain to craft new privacy rules
for the digital age. Should the defendant prevail, expect a landslide of
challenges to CSLI evidence and related digital data seizures. The Court could
easily use the Carpenter case to
reshape, reform or reject the third-party doctrine in digital privacy matters.
Courts Uphold Collection, Admission of Real-Time
Cell Site Location Information Without a Search Warrant
from the 5th and 6th Circuits provide insight into the courts’ thinking around
use of real-time cell site location information (CSLI).
In the 5th
Circuit case, a confidential informant told an investigator that Wallace, a
known gang member and fugitive, was living in the Austin area. The investigator
obtained an order for real-time location of Wallace’s cell phone. Using that information,
the investigator located and arrested Wallace on a fugitive warrant. Incident
to the arrest, the investigator searched Wallace and found ammunition in his
pocket and a gun nearby.
the order to obtain his cell phone location was invalid because the
investigator was not engaged in an ongoing criminal investigation. Joining the
national judicial discussion on whether obtaining real-time CSLI is a search
under the Fourth Amendment, the 5th Circuit held that it was not a search.
Relying on the
third-party doctrine (cell phone users voluntarily disclose their locations to
third-party cellular service providers), the court had previously held that
obtaining historical CSLI is not a
search. In this case, the court held that obtaining prospective CSLI is also not a search under
the Fourth Amendment: “There is little distinction between historical and
prospective cell site data.”
Thus, the court
concurred with the 6th Circuit, the only other federal appellate court thus far
to consider whether obtaining real-time cell site information is a search. Quoting
the 6th Circuit decision in United States
v. Skinner (690 F.3d 772 (6th Cir. 2012)), the court stated, “[w]hen
criminals use modern technological devices to carry out criminal acts and to
reduce the possibility of detection, they can hardly complain when the police
take advantage of the inherent characteristics of those very devices to catch
The 6th Circuit
doubled down on the real-time CSLI ruling in a separate case. Fleeing charges
of armed robbery of a check-cashing outlet, Riley bought a new cell phone. His girlfriend
provided the phone number to investigators. The investigators obtained a court
order (not a search warrant) for active pinging and real-time CSLI. Using the
CSLI provided by the phone service provider, investigators narrowed Riley’s
location to a motel within seven hours after serving the order.
went to the motel located by the cell phone pinging. They showed Riley’s
picture to the motel clerk. The clerk said that a man who matched the photo had
checked in under the name of “Rico Shawn Lavender” (bonus points for
creativity), and pointed out the room. Investigators arrested Riley, finding a
gun in his possession and adding to his charges.
on the third-party doctrine, and the fact that the monitoring lasted only seven
hours, the court held that the investigators lawfully obtained the CSLI. The
court also noted the CSLI only revealed Riley’s movements in public areas; it
was the motel clerk who pinpointed the location of Riley/Lavender.
wrote a separate concurring opinion in which he suggested the third-party
doctrine alone might not justify tracking Riley’s CSLI. Judge Boggs noted that
Riley was a fugitive, for whom there was an active felony arrest warrant: “The
robber may not both seek refuge from execution of the warrant and
simultaneously broadcast his location by carrying a GPS-enabled cell phone.” United
States v. Wallace, 857 F.3d 685 (5th Cir. 2017) and United
States v. Riley, 2017 WL 2413819 (6th Cir. 2017)
Dual-Stop Technique Results in Voided Seizure
of Drug Money
stopped Gorman for a left lane passing violation on the interstate freeway. The
trooper’s conversation with Gorman caused the trooper to suspect that Gorman
was carrying drug money. The trooper requested a drug detector dog team, but no
team was available in that area.
After a series
of computer checks, the trooper returned Gorman’s documents to him and told him
that he was not issuing a citation. The trooper didn’t tell Gorman that he was
free to leave, and he continued to question Gorman. The trooper also contacted
EPIC (El Paso Intelligence Center) and found a “hit” on Gorman as a suspected
drug courier, but with no warrants or holds.
asked Gorman questions about how he made money and whether he was carrying
money. Gorman claimed to have about $2,000 in cash. When the trooper asked for
consent to search the motor home, Gorman declined. The trooper then released
Gorman. Walking back to his car, the trooper muttered, “He’s carrying money.”
The trooper called
ahead to a neighboring jurisdiction and said he suspected Gorman was carrying
drug money, but that only a drug detector dog was likely to produce probable
cause for a search. Down the road, a deputy sheriff heard the dispatch
broadcast. The deputy telephoned the trooper and learned the facts of the first
stop. The deputy then drove to the freeway to watch for Gorman.
spotted Gorman’s motor home on the freeway. As soon as the deputy observed a
traffic violation, he stopped Gorman. The deputy requested the same computer
checks on Gorman, including the EPIC inquiry. The deputy deployed his detector
dog for an exterior sniff. The dog gave a positive final response at the rear
cargo area exterior.
a search warrant based on the dog sniff, the deputy searched the motor home. He
found $167,070 in cash, two large empty duffle bags and a large empty
hard-sided storage case. Gorman was not charged with any crime. The federal
prosecutor initiated a forfeiture action for the cash.
conceded the prolonged detention of the first stop was illegal. A stop for a
traffic violation may take the time necessary to determine “whether to issue a
traffic ticket” and “checking the driver’s license, determining whether there are
outstanding warrants against the driver, and inspecting the automobile's
registration and proof of insurance” (Rodriguez v. United States, 135
S.Ct. 1609 (2015)). Extending the stop beyond that time requires an independent
reason to further detain the driver.
court applied the “fruit of the poisonous tree” analysis to the second stop,
asking whether the illegality of the prolonged first stop tainted the evidence
obtained after the dog sniff. The “fruit of the poisonous tree” asks whether
“the illegal activity tends to significantly direct the investigation to the
evidence in question … The focus, in other words, is on the causal connection
between the illegality and the evidence.”
opined that the trooper’s and deputy’s dealings with Gorman were “a single
integrated effort by police to circumvent the Constitution by making two
coordinated stops.” The court did not separately analyze the lawful portion and
the unlawful portion of the first stop, concluding instead that “the facts here
show clearly that part of the impetus
for the second stop did come from the unlawful portion … There is an
indisputable ‘causal connection’ between Gorman’s concededly unlawful detention
and the dog sniff and its fruits … We conclude that the illegality of the first
detention ‘tainted’ the evidence obtained during the second stop.”
Even where the
“fruit of the poisonous tree” doctrine may apply, the Supreme Court has
outlined certain exceptions to the doctrine, including:
independent source doctrine, in which a court considers whether evidence
discovered in an unlawful search was also independently obtained from a
separate, independent source.
attenuation doctrine, applicable when the connection between the illegal act
and finding the evidence is so attenuated that it dissipates the taint caused
by the illegal act. When determining whether to apply the attenuation doctrine,
courts consider the temporal proximity of the illegal conduct and finding the
evidence in question; whether, and to what degree, there are intervening
circumstances; and “the purpose and flagrancy of the official misconduct.”
inevitable discovery doctrine, which permits a court to admit evidence that
would have been inevitably discovered even without a constitutional violation.
inapplicability of the exclusionary rule to civil proceedings or probation
use of the evidence to impeach a defendant.
court held that no exception applied. Thus, the second stop and the subsequent
detector dog sniff were illegal. Gorman was entitled to the money and his
attorney fees. United
States v. Gorman, 2017 WL 2508624 (9th Cir. 2017)
Note: Special thanks to Dr. Terry Fleck for his insights on the
detector dog sniff. To follow the latest developments in all matters related to
police service dogs, visit his site: www.k9fleck.org.
Holds a Privacy Interest in a Shared Front Porch?
An officer conducting plainclothes surveillance saw Leslie
walk up to the front porch of a triplex residence known for gang and gun
activity. The yard around the triplex was fenced. A common porch ran the along
the front of the residence. As Leslie walked up to the porch, he rapidly looked
from side to side, as if looking to see whether he was being watched, and then
crouched down, appearing to manipulate an object. The officer believed that
Leslie was stashing a gun.
The officer next saw Price walk over to the same part of the
porch, look from side to side and crouch down. Leslie walked back to the same
spot twice more, each time looking around and crouching down. The third time
that Leslie walked to the porch, he stood and pantomimed firing a long gun into
the air. The officer called for other officers to assist.
Several officers walked up the sidewalk of the residence and
began to talk to the four men on the porch. One officer walked to the side of
the porch, where Leslie had thrice walked and bent down. The officer saw a sawed-off
shotgun on the ground under the porch. The shotgun could not be seen from the
street or from the fence near the sidewalk, but it was in plain view from the
left side of the yard if one walked behind a recycling bin in the yard.
The officers arrested Leslie and Price. Leslie challenged
the admission of the illegal shotgun. The trial court ordered suppression of
the gun, relying on Florida v. Jardines (133 S.Ct. 1409 (2013)). In Jardines, the Supreme Court held that a
warrantless drug detector canine sniff of a front porch of a single-family home
was an improper search.
The front porch of a residence is generally part of the
curtilage, requiring a warrant, consent or some other Fourth Amendment warrant
requirement exception. The court was faced with the question of whether the
officer’s movement to the side yard of the triplex was within the curtilage of
the home, triggering the warrant requirement.
The Supreme Court has yet to rule on whether porches and
side yards of a multifamily dwelling are within the constitutionally protected
curtilage. Lower courts facing this question have applied a four-factor test
from United States v. Dunn (480 U.S. 294
(1987)) to define the area of “curtilage”:
Proximity to the home
Whether it is fenced or otherwise enclosed
The nature of the use of the area
Efforts the resident takes to screen the area
from public view
Considering the Dunn
test, the Massachusetts Supreme Court held that the porch and side yard area
were protected as part of the curtilage: “The intrusion into the side yard to
search for a suspected hidden weapon was no different from bringing a drug-sniffing
dog to the front porch of a single-family home.” Thus, the shotgun could not be
used as evidence against Leslie and Price.
What might an officer do to bring a different result? Would
asking a suspected gang member for consent to look under the porch always fail?
The court didn’t describe the neighboring property, but there might have been
point that allowed a view of the shotgun and didn’t intrude on the
curtilage. We don’t know what might have happened; even so, slowing down to
think about Fourth Amendment questions is often helpful. Commonwealth v. Leslie, 2017 WL
1885833 (Mass. 2017)
Expectation of Privacy in Ankle Monitor GPS Data
Officers suspected Mathews of committing two pawn shop
robberies. Mathews was on supervised release and wore an ankle monitor. Mathews’
parole officer participated in the task force investigating the robberies. He
accessed Mathews’ ankle monitor GPS records and determined that Mathews was
wearing his ankle monitor in the pawn shops at the time of robberies (no one
said that Mathews is a criminal genius!).
Mathews was charged with the robberies. He argued that the
GPS evidence was the result of an illegal “search” of the ankle monitor data. The
court agreed that parole officials were “perpetually ‘searching’ Mathews within
the meaning of the Fourth Amendment for as long as he wore the ankle monitor.” However,
the legal issue to be resolved was whether Mathews had a legitimate expectation
of privacy in the ankle monitor GPS data.
Mathews complained that his parole officer exceeded his
authority in searching the data while acting in his task force investigator
role. He claimed that any other officer would have needed a search warrant to
obtain the GPS data. The court ruled that the search was proper. First, Mathews
had a release
condition that allowed a parole officer “to search your person, vehicle,
residence or any property under your control.” This search happened without
intruding on Mathews’ person or property; in fact, it happened without his
knowledge. Thus, reasoned the court, it did not matter whether it was Mathews’
parole officer or another officer who conducted the search. Second, the court
noted that the GPS data was historical—not real-time surveillance. United States v. Mathews, 2017 WL
1407036 (D. Colo. 2017)
Your Parking Tickets!
Andrew Bushey’s bad day began with a collection of unpaid
parking tickets. His car registration was suspended due to outstanding parking
citations. An officer saw Bushey driving down the road, but did not observe any
traffic violation. The officer checked the car license plate on his mobile data
Learning that the vehicle registration was suspended, the
officer stopped Bushey. The officer checked Bushey’s driver license status and
learned that it, too, was suspended. As the officer spoke with Bushey, he saw
signs of impairment. Ultimately, he arrested Bushey for driving under the
influence and driving with a suspended driver license and a suspended
registration. If only he’d paid the parking fines.
Bushey challenged the lawfulness of the computer check of
his registration. In affirming the lower court, the Court of Appeals added New
York to the long list of state and federal courts that have approved stops
following checks of vehicle registrations without any suspicion of wrongdoing.
For example, courts have upheld:
Stops when an officer runs a registration check
and learns that the registered owner has a suspended license. See State v. Reno (840 A.2d 786 (N.H.
2003)); State v. Halvorson (997 P.2d 751
Stops when an officer recognizes a driver as
having a suspended driver’s license. See United States v. Hope (906 F.2d 254
(7th Cir. 1990)), where the officer knew that the license suspended as of one
week prior to the stop; United States v. Sandridge (385 F.3d
1032 (6th Cir. 2004)), where the officer knew that the license was suspended 22
days before the stop.
Stops based on running a registration check and
learning that an arrest warrant has been issued for the registered owner, when
the driver reasonably could be the registered owner. See State v. Penfield (22 P.3d 293
(Wash. 2001)) in which the court ruled the stop must terminate when the driver
is found not to be the registered owner; State
v. Oshkeshequoam (503 N.W.2d 23 (Wis. App. 1993)).
The officer who stopped Bushey was looking at the license
plate to look beyond the license plate. The court agreed that the officer’s
tactic was entirely legal because there is no expectation of privacy in a
license plate on a car on a public road—or in the information contained on the
registration record. People v. Bushey, 2017 WL 1712385
(N.Y. App. 2017)
Stop for Historical CSLI: Supreme Court?
After a burglary of a store that sold guns and rare coins,
investigators obtained subscriber information for a phone number from which an
after-hours call to the store was placed. Following this slim clue,
investigators found that it was Rosario’s cell phone. Investigators then
obtained cell site location information (CSLI)—without a warrant or other court
order—for the phone and placed the phone at the scene and time of the burglary.
After Rosario was charged, he asked that the CSLI be
suppressed because the investigators did not obtain a warrant for the
information. This fact pattern can be seen in dozens of cases across the
nation. In most prosecutions, as in Rosario’s case, courts apply the “third-party
doctrine,” ruling that the information is willingly disclosed to a third party
(the cell phone service provider) and therefore doesn’t trigger the Fourth
Amendment search warrant requirement.
Every federal circuit court of appeal to consider this fact
pattern has ruled that the CSLI was obtained without
a Fourth Amendment search. However, the court acknowledged that many have
questioned the continuing vitality of the third-party doctrine as it applies to
mobile phones and similar devices. There is a petition for certiorari pending
in the United States Supreme Court in a case where the circuit court of appeals
held that there is no Fourth Amendment search when investigators obtain subscriber
information associated with an individual’s internet protocol address from a
third-party technology company (United
States v. Caira, 833 F.3d 803 (7th Cir. 2016), petition for cert. filed
(Sept. 11, 2016) (No. 16-6761)). Many advocacy groups are weighing in, hoping
that the Supreme Court will take its next step in application of the Fourth
Amendment to modern technology. United States v. Rosario, 2017 WL 2117534 (N.D. Ill. 2017)
Circuit Outlines Use of Force Standard for Medical Emergencies
Corey Hill was on a near-certain collision course with
death. Finding him in a profound diabetic emergency, Hill’s girlfriend called
for emergency medical help. Paramedics found Hill very disoriented and
combative. Hill’s blood sugar level was at 38, low enough to be considered a
medical emergency because it may lead to a seizure and death.
Paramedics inserted a catheter to intravenously administer
dextrose to raise Hill’s blood sugar level. An officer arrived just as Hill
ripped the catheter from his arm, causing blood to spray, and Hill kicked,
swung and swore as the paramedics tried to restrain him and save his life. The
officer deployed a TASER® device in drive-stun mode (e.g., direct contact
without probes) on Hill’s thigh, distracting Hill long enough for paramedics to
secure the catheter and administer dextrose.
Hill “became an angel” and was “very apologetic” after the
dextrose took effect, and paramedics took him to the hospital. Later, however,
rather than express gratitude that his life had been saved, Hill sued, alleging
excessive force and assault and battery. He claimed his diabetes worsened and
he suffered contact burns as a result of the TASER application.
The trial court ruled that the officer violated Hill’s
clearly established Fourth Amendment rights and denied qualified immunity for
the officer. In a decision stunningly rife with common sense and practicality,
the Court of Appeals reversed and ordered the trial judge to dismiss the
lawsuit. The court held that the officer acted in an objectively reasonable
manner with the minimum force necessary to bring Hill under control, and the
officer helped save Hill’s life.
The trial court came to its conclusion by applying the test
of Graham v. Connor (490 U.S. 386
(1989)). But as the appeals court noted, such analysis was fundamentally problematic
in this case. Graham prescribes
analysis of three factors to determine the objective reasonableness of force
applied by an officer. The factors are:
The severity of the crime at issue
Whether the suspect poses an immediate threat to
the safety of the officers or others
Whether he is actively resisting arrest or
attempting to evade arrest by flight
“[A]pplying the Graham
factors to the situation that [the officer] faced is equivalent to a baseball
player entering the batter’s box with two strikes already against him,” the
appellate court noted. “In other words, because Hill had not committed a crime
and was not resisting arrest, two of the three Graham factors automatically weighed against [the officer].”
Citing a precedent with similar facts, the court said that
it was time to fashion a new test for situations where officers use force to
help resolve a medical emergency:
Where a situation does not fit
within the Graham test because the
person in question has not committed a crime, is not resisting arrest, and is
not directly threatening the officer, the court should ask:
(1) Was the person experiencing a
medical emergency that rendered him incapable of making a rational decision
under circumstances that posed an immediate threat of serious harm to himself
(2) Was some degree of force
reasonably necessary to ameliorate the immediate threat?
(3) Was the force used more than
reasonably necessary under the circumstances (i.e., was it excessive)?
The Court of Appeals stated that the officer should benefit
from qualified immunity if the first two questions are answered affirmatively
and the third question is answered negatively.
Applying that test, it was an easy conclusion to extend
qualified immunity to the officer. Hill’s combative behavior presented an
immediate threat to the paramedics and to Hill himself. Though the trial court
observed that the danger to Hill could have been resolved by leaving him alone,
the Court of Appeals cited Hill’s likely death as an appropriate reason to use
some force. Finally, the appellate court held that the officer’s decision not
to wrestle Hill into compliance (he was, after all, flailing a catheterized
arm), and to instead use a distracting application of the TASER, was
objectively reasonable. Hill v. Miracle, 2017 WL 1228553
(6th Cir. 2017)
Strikes Down Probation Term Allowing Search of Cell Phone
Officers investigating a noise and trespassing complaint in
an apartment parking lot spoke with Bryant as he sat in a car. An officer
smelled the strong odor of marijuana and asked Bryant to step out. A subsequent
search of the car revealed an unregistered semi-automatic .45 caliber handgun
under Bryant’s seat. Bryant’s DNA matched DNA found on the gun’s magazine.
Bryant was convicted of carrying a concealed firearm in a
vehicle. His sentence included a two-year probation period that required Bryant
to submit to searches of texts, emails and photographs on his mobile phone or
other electronic device. Bryant appealed the imposition of the supervision
term, arguing that the search condition was not reasonably related to future
The Court of Appeals agreed with Bryant, ruling that the
prosecution did not show any reasonable connection between Bryant’s digital
device use and the weapons crime conviction or any future criminality: “No
cellular phone or electronic device was involved in the crime and there is no
evidence that Bryant would use such devices to engage in future criminal
activity.” Had there been some nexus between Bryant’s digital life and his
crime—such as meeting a crime victim through social media or using his mobile
phone for arranging drug deals or human trafficking—the court would almost
certainly have reached a different result.
The court also expressed concern for Bryant’s Fourth
Amendment rights: Even as a convicted criminal on probation, he doesn’t lose
all constitutional protection. Citing the Supreme Court, the court noted that “a
cellular phone search could potentially reveal ‘a digital record of nearly
every aspect of [its owner's life]—from the mundane to the intimate’” (Riley v. California, 134 S.Ct. 2473,
2489 (2014)). People v. Bryant, 2017 WL 1210053
(Cal. App. 2nd Dist. 2017)
Testifying about CSLI Must Qualify as Expert Witnesses
Edwards was convicted of a home invasion robbery. He
followed a woman home from a grocery store, entering her garage and brandishing
a gun. In addition to Edwards’ fingerprints on the side of the victim’s car,
the victim’s identification of Edwards’ car (but not Edwards), surveillance
video and other evidence, the prosecution elicited testimony from a police
detective regarding cell site location information (CSLI) for Edwards’ phone.
On appeal, Edwards challenged the admission of the CSLI, asserting
the trial court improperly admitted the CSLI evidence without determining that
the evidence was based on reliable scientific principles, as required by the
Supreme Court in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (509 U.S. 579 (1993)). Daubert requires trial courts to determine
that the scientific methods used to reach a particular conclusion are reliable
and that the evidence is relevant.
The Connecticut Supreme Court held that the trial court
improperly allowed the officer to testify about the CSLI evidence from Edwards’
phone without establishing the officer as an expert witness. This case signals
officers to be prepared to explain the scientific method behind CSLI and to
show that the evidence is scientifically sound before a court may properly admit
it as evidence. It isn’t enough just to download the data; the officer must
explain how the CSLI is collected.
Even though the Court found the cell phone evidence to be
improperly admitted, there was adequate other evidence to sustain Edwards’
conviction. State v. Edwards, 2017 WL 1194851 (Conn.
by the Tracks on a Snowy Evening Might Not Have Been Burglarious
Squires and Angier were walking along railroad tracks on a
snowy evening, the temperature plunging below freezing. When stopped by officers,
Squires told the officers that the men were “just out for a stroll.” Angier
unslung his backpack and placed it on the ground with a loud metal “clang.” The
officers searched the backpack and discovered a blue crowbar, a large
screwdriver bar, a pair of black gloves, and a small red flashlight. The
backpack also contained a crude, hand-drawn map with one spot marked “going in”
and five more spots marked with an “X.”
A search of the two men produced two-way radios tuned to the
same frequency. Both men also had black gloves. The officers walked to Squires’
vehicle and searched it, finding another pair of black gloves and a small sledgehammer.
Squires and Angier were convicted of “walking on a railroad track” and “possession
of burglarious instruments.”
Angier died during the appellate process. His attorney asked
for the charges against him to be vacated. Perhaps as he faced some other
judgment bar he would offer a decent explanation for his burglarious tools and
“X marks the spot” map. Or not. The court declined to dismiss the matter
because Angier’s legal arguments were intertwined with Squires’, who had not
passed on to the final judgment bar.
However, a narrowly divided Supreme Judicial Court held that
the prosecution had not met its burden of proof to show burglarious intent. Walking
by the tracks on a snowy evening with an “X marks the spot” map and a host of
tools commonly—but not exclusively—used for break-ins was not sufficient to
show nefarious burglarious intent.
Who knows? Perhaps Squires and Angier had recently read
Robert Frost’s pastoral poem, “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,” and were doing their best to relive the
moment (albeit along the railroad tracks). Commonwealth v. Squires, 71 N.E.3d
520 (Mass. 2017)
Prong of the Gant Decision Justifies
Search of Hatchback
During a road rage incident, Stegall brandished a gun at the
other driver. The driver called 911 and dispatch broadcast a description of
Stegall’s sport utility vehicle (SUV) pulling a trailer with a jet ski. In
short order, two officers spotted the SUV. They temporarily lost sight of it,
but soon found it parked and unoccupied in a shopping center parking lot.
A witness told the officers she saw someone get out of the
SUV, go to the back of the SUV and “put something up underneath something.” The
witness told the officers the driver had gone to a nearby deli; proceeding with
the officers to the deli, she identified Stegall as the driver.
Stegall told the officers that he was the driver of the SUV
and that he’d been involved in a road rage incident earlier that day, but
denied brandishing a gun during the encounter. He told the officers he
“probably” had a gun in his vehicle, but he did not consent to a search of his SUV.
The officers called the other driver to the shopping center.
The driver identified Stegall as the person who brandished a gun at him. The
officers arrested Stegall for terroristic threatening. They handcuffed him and
placed him in the back of a patrol vehicle.
Intending to tow the SUV, the officers began an inventory. They
found a handgun lodged between the back row of seats and the rear cargo
floorboard. The handgun matched the description provided by the other driver. The
officers also found an AR–15 rifle with an unusually short barrel. Concerned
that the possession of a short-barreled rifle could be an independent crime,
the officers stopped the inventory and sought a search warrant.
Stegall was charged with one count of possessing an
unregistered short-barreled rifle. He asked the court to suppress the rifle as
the product of a pretextual inventory. The trial court denied his request,
finding that the search was reasonable as a search incident to a lawful arrest.
In Arizona v. Gant (556 U.S. 332 (2009)),
the U.S. Supreme Court redefined and narrowed the traditional “search incident
to arrest” exception to the warrant requirement of the Fourth Amendment. The
Court held that officers may search a vehicle incident to an arrest only if the
arrestee is unrestrained and “within reaching distance of the passenger
compartment” at the time of the search or
“it is reasonable to believe the vehicle contains evidence” of the crime for
which the person is being arrested.
Because Stegall was handcuffed and secured in a patrol car
at the time of the search, the officers needed a basis to believe the vehicle
contained evidence linking Stegall to the road rage incident—otherwise the
search would not trigger the search incident to arrest exception. The witness
told officers that she saw Stegall put something in the rear hatch of the SUV. Stegall
admitted that he was the driver involved in the road rage incident and said
that he probably had a gun in the SUV. Plus, the other driver identified
Stegall as the one who brandished a gun. Therefore, the court held that there
was reason to believe that the SUV contained evidence of the crime of terroristic
Stegall also argued that the search was illegal because it
exceeded the proper scope of a vehicle search incident to arrest. Stegall
defined the rear of the SUV as the trunk area, not part of the passenger
compartment. The court disagreed, holding that a hatchback area is part of the
passenger compartment as long as one of the vehicle occupants could have
reached into the hatchback area while inside the vehicle. Numerous other courts
have reached the same conclusion; see United
States v. Sain (421 Fed.Appx. 591 (6th Cir. 2011)), United States v. Allen (469 F.3d 11 (1st Cir. 2006)), United States v. Mayo (394 F.3d 1271 (9th
Cir. 2005)), and United States v.
Olguin–Rivera (168 F.3d 1203 (10th Cir. 1999)). It did not matter to the
court that Stegall used the exterior access to put the gun in the hatchback. Nor
did it matter that the officers opened the hatch at the rear during their
search. United States v. Stegall, 2017 WL
957204 (8th Cir. 2017)
Impound Leads to Suppression of Gun
Two officers saw a car parked in front of a vacant lot and
across the street from a church at 0300 hrs.
The motor was running and the car lights were off. When the officers aimed
their spotlight at the car, they saw two men in the front seat.
The officers approached the car. Crowley-Chester was in the
passenger seat. The officers saw an unknown object in his hand (it turned out to
be a black glove) and a closed Swiss Army knife in the center console. They ordered
the men out of the car. An officer secured the knife. When the driver got out
of the vehicle, he dropped a white rock to the ground. An officer recognized it
as crack cocaine and he arrested the driver.
The driver asked the officers to let Crowley-Chester drive
his car. However, Crowley-Chester did not have a license. The officers
impounded the car. During the inventory search, the officers found a backpack
containing a gun in the trunk. The backpack was labeled with Crowley-Chester’s
name and it also contained a paystub issued in his name. Crowley-Chester was
arrested for carrying a gun without a license.
Crowley-Chester asked the court to suppress the evidence
found in the backpack, arguing that the car was legally parked on the street
and did not need to be impounded. The prosecution countered that the car was in
a high-crime neighborhood at 0300 hrs
and was impounded for caretaking reasons. The prosecution also argued that the
knife in the car justified impounding the car for public safety reasons. Crowley-Chester
introduced evidence that there had been only a single call of a car prowl in
the neighborhood in the three months preceding the arrest.
The court was not persuaded by the argument that a single
car prowl—plus other unrelated calls for service—justified the impound for
caretaking reasons. Nor was the court persuaded by the claimed public safety
threat arguably presented by the seized Swiss Army pocketknife—after all, the
officers had secured the pocketknife before impounding the vehicle.
This wasn’t a case where the police chose the location of a
traffic stop; the driver chose to lawfully park on the street. Coupling that
fact with the slim evidence that the area was a high-crime neighborhood, the
court found there was no police duty to impound the car to protect it from
theft or vandalism. Thus, the court agreed with Crowley-Chester and ordered
suppression of the backpack and its contents.
If an officer believes that the crime rate in a particular
location justifies an impound for safekeeping, the officer must be able to
point to some basis for the belief, whether it is crime statistics or the
officer’s own experiences in that neighborhood. Commonwealth v. Crowley-Chester, 2017
WL 935793 (Mass. 2017)
Register or StingRay? Confusion Leads to Suppression
Police investigating a string of robberies of food delivery
drivers accused Smith of robbing and shooting a pizza delivery driver. Detectives
found Smith through his cell phone: Using the phone number provided to order
the pizza, officers obtained a court order to “go up on a pen register,
specifically trap and trace devices on telephone number 773-981-5292.”
Officers used the signals from his cell phone to locate
Smith as he walked along the sidewalk. They grabbed Smith, took him to the
ground and searched him. They found his cell phone in his pants pocket. Smith
asked the court to suppress the surveillance evidence derived from the phone,
claiming that he was arrested without warrant or probable cause.
At the suppression hearing, a detective testified that they
used a “pen register” to trap and trace the numbers dialed on Smith’s phone. However,
the defense argued that the detective described technology that was more
consistent with use of a StingRay device. Rather than merely trapping and
tracing numbers, a StingRay is capable of precisely locating a targeted cell
phone within a specified area. A StingRay simulates a cell site, forcing cell
phones in range to send their signals to the cell-site simulator. Once the cell
phones in the area send their signals to the StingRay, it captures information
that can be used to identify the cell phone serial number and to locate the
cell phone in real time.
The detective who located Smith’s cell phone signal couldn’t
explain how a trap-and-trace device such as a pen register allowed him to
pinpoint the phone’s precise location. The appellate court said that the
detective’s testimony didn’t seem consistent with the operation of pen
registers: “The record reveals that the officers’
testimony about the surveillance technology was sparse, vague, obfuscating and
at times incoherent.”
Though many courts have discussed the Fourth Amendment
implications of using a StingRay device (see “No Need to
Tell Judge about StingRay Use” and “Warrant
Required for StingRay Cell-Site Simulator Device”), that’s not the focus of
this case. The court considered whether the prosecution established a
sufficient foundation for any evidence
of surveillance technology it used to track Smith’s phone. The court held that
the detective’s testimony failed to show any scientific or technical knowledge about
the device, whether it was a pen register as claimed or not. Moreover, there
was no evidence that the device—whatever it was—worked properly when it was
used to locate Smith’s phone.
The court was highly critical, noting that the witnesses
“painfully—indeed fatally—failed to provide any critical details” about the
technology used. More to the point, the court cited well-established
evidentiary rules for establishing foundation to testify about mechanical or
electronic surveillance devices. The takeaway: Officers must educate
prosecutors about whatever technology is used and be prepared to adequately
explain it to the court. People v. Smith, 2017 IL. App. (1st)
14-1814-U (Ill. App. 2017)
Admissible Despite Violating Court’s Protocol
Thomas was a backseat passenger in a car driven by
Humphrey-Frazer. Johnson was the front seat passenger. Thomas saw a person in a
crowd standing in front of a house and he fired his gun toward the person. Someone
returned fire and struck Humphrey-Frazer in the head, killing him.
Detectives interviewed Johnson the night of the fatal
shooting. They showed her a computer screen that simultaneously displayed
photos of 11 people. The detectives asked Johnson to look at the photos and
tell them whether she recognized anyone. The procedure was not recorded. Johnson
pointed to Thomas, who was later arrested.
Thomas asked the court to suppress the photo lineup
evidence, arguing that the detectives did not follow the eyewitness
identification procedures outlined in Commonwealth v. Silva-Santiago (906 N.E.2d 299 (Mass. 2009)). In
Silva-Santiago, the court prescribed
sequential, rather than simultaneous, presentation of lineup photos and
outlined the following witness instruction for photo lineups:
The eyewitness will be asked to view a set of
The alleged wrongdoer may or may not be in the
photographs depicted in the array
It is just as important to clear a person from
suspicion as to identify a person as the alleged wrongdoer
The persons in the photographs may not appear
exactly as they did on the date of the incident because features such as weight
and head and facial hair are subject to change
The investigation will continue regardless of
whether an identification is made
The lineup the administrator should ask the eyewitness
for a statement of confidence of any identification
This was the first case asking the court to invalidate an
eyewitness identification as the sanction for failure to follow the procedure
prescribed in Silva-Santiago. The
court allowed Johnson’s identification of Thomas from the simultaneous photo
array. Despite the failure to administer the cautions outlined by the court in
its prior rulings, the court held that the procedure in this case was not
The court also cited research studies published since its
2004 decision in Silva-Santiago. Those
studies, the court said, cast doubt on the view that sequential presentation of
photographs is superior to simultaneous presentation: “What is not clear from
the studies is whether, and in what circumstances, the use of the protocol in a
simultaneous photographic lineup diminishes the risk of false positive
identification to a rate comparable to or less than that in a sequential
lineup. We cannot determine whether a sequential display is superior to a
simultaneous display and that the use of the latter is unnecessarily suggestive
until we learn, at a minimum, whether the rate of false positive identification
with the use of the protocol is significantly higher in simultaneous displays
than in sequential displays.”
The court’s opinion concurs with the New Jersey Supreme
Court, which held that, “for now, there is insufficient authoritative evidence
accepted by scientific experts for a court to make a finding in favor of either
[simultaneous or sequential lineup] procedure” (State v. Henderson, 27 A.3d 872
(N.J. 2011)). More recently, the National Academy of
Sciences observed that “the relative superiority of competing [simultaneous
versus sequential] identification procedures ... is unresolved.”
For several years, Lexipol’s best practice policy has
prescribed recording the eyewitness identification procedure and administering
important instructions to the witness prior to beginning the procedure. Lexipol
also recommends blind administration; the person presenting the lineup should
not be involved in the investigation of the case or know the identity of the
suspect. Lexipol’s cautionary instructions include:
An instruction to the witness that it is as
important to exclude innocent persons as it is to identify a perpetrator.
An instruction to the witness that the
perpetrator may or may not be among those presented and that the witness is not
obligated to make an identification.
If the identification process is a photographic
or live lineup, an instruction to the witness that the perpetrator may not
appear exactly as he/she did on the date of the incident.
An instruction to the witness that the
investigation will continue regardless of whether an identification is made by
A signature line where the witness acknowledges
that he/she understands the identification procedures and instructions.
A statement from the witness in the witness's
own words describing how certain he/she is of the identification or non-identification.
This statement should be taken at the time of the identification procedure.
Although the court upheld the admission of the eyewitness
identification in this case, it reminded officers of its authority to govern
admission of evidence and reiterated that courts assessing the weight of the
eyewitness identification evidence will still scrutinize the steps taken by
officers to prevent a suggestive identification procedure. Commonwealth v. Thomas, 2017 WL
581933 (Mass. 2017)
Frisk Allowed, Even
When Suspect May Have Lawfully Carried Concealed Weapon
An anonymous caller told police that he had just “witnessed
a black male in a bluish greenish Toyota Camry load a firearm [and] conceal it
in his pocket” in the parking lot of a 7–Eleven store well known for drug
trafficking. The tipster reported that the Camry was being driven by a white
woman and had just started to go south on North Mildred Street. This area is
known as the “highest crime area” in the city.
As an officer turned on to North Mildred Street, he saw a Toyota
Camry being driven by a white woman with a black male passenger. He observed
that neither occupant was wearing a seat belt and he stopped the car based on
that violation. The backup officer opened the passenger door for Robinson, the
passenger, to step out. He asked Robinson whether he had any weapons on him. Robinson
didn’t answer verbally, but gave the officer “’a weird look’ or, more
specifically, an ‘oh, crap’ look.”
The officer frisked Robinson and found a loaded gun in his
pocket. Recognizing Robinson as a convicted felon, he arrested him. Robinson
asked the court to suppress the evidence from the frisk.
Robinson argued that the state permitted persons to carry
concealed weapons by permit. The rule of Terry v. Ohio (392 U.S. 1 (1968)) permits a detention and frisk
for weapons when an officer has reasonable suspicion that a person is both
armed and dangerous. Because the officers did not know whether he had a
permit prior to the time that they stopped the car and frisked him, Robinson claimed,
they could not have known whether his possession of the concealed weapon was
lawful. Thus, he might have been involved in innocent behavior that would not lead
to reasonable suspicion that he was both armed and a danger to others.
The court rejected Robinson’s argument: “The presumptive
lawfulness of an individual's gun possession in a particular State does next to
nothing to negate the reasonable concern an officer has for his own safety when
forcing an encounter with an individual who is armed with a gun and whose
propensities are unknown.” As long as the officer carefully applies the Terry doctrine, the fact that a state
allows carrying a concealed weapon will not defeat an otherwise proper frisk. The
officer must have:
Conducted a lawful stop, whether an
investigative detention or traffic stop
A reasonable belief that the person is both
armed and presents a danger to others
The court cited the Supreme Court’s discussion of dangers
that officers face in Maryland v. Wilson (519 U.S. 408
(1997)) and more recent data from the 2014
Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted report. Nonetheless, the
court reminded officers that the risk inherent in every traffic stop—proven by
the numbers of officers killed and assaulted—won’t automatically justify a
frisk. In this case, there was more than ample reasonable suspicion to both
stop and to frisk Robinson.
The number of concealed carry permit holders increases
yearly and more states are allowing people to carry a concealed weapon without
a permit (subject to the usual restrictions of age, criminal history, etc.).
Officers will increasingly face application of the Terry doctrine as it applies to frisks for weapons and persons who
may be lawfully carrying a weapon. United States v. Robinson, 846 F.3d
694 (4th Cir. 2017) (en banc)
Recording Police Officers
on Its Way to Being a Clearly Established Right
Turner was video recording a police station. Two officers
drove up and approached him. The officers asked for Turner’s identification. Turner
asked whether he was being detained. When an officer replied affirmatively,
Turner asked what crime supported the detention. He refused to produce
The officers suddenly grabbed Turner, took his camera and
handcuffed him. They told Turner, “This is what happens when you don’t ID
yourself.” Turner asked to see a supervisor. The officers persisted in asking
for identification. They placed Turner in the back of a patrol car and “left
him there to sweat for a while with the windows rolled up.”
A lieutenant arrived and spoke with Turner. When the
lieutenant asked for Turner’s identification, Turner told him that he did not
have to provide it because he had not been lawfully arrested. The lieutenant
told Turner he was correct and ordered that Turner be released and his camera
returned to him.
Turner sued, alleging that his First and Fourth Amendment
rights had been violated. The trial court granted qualified immunity to the
officers. Qualified immunity protects an officer from suit when the alleged
wrong did not violate “clearly established law.” Before a court can say that
the law is clearly established, “the contours of the right must be sufficiently
clear that a reasonable official would understand that what he is doing
violates that right.” Recently, in White v. Pauly (137 S.Ct. 548 (2017)),
Supreme Court emphasized that “‘clearly established law’ should not be
defined ‘at a high level of generality.’”
The appellate court upheld the grant of qualified immunity
applied to the First Amendment claim. Every circuit court of appeals to
consider the issue has held that a First Amendment right exists to record the
public activities of officers. However, not every circuit has held that the
right is clearly established. The Fifth Circuit had not yet ruled on the issue at
the time that Turner was arrested.
Lexipol’s best practice
policy recognizes the general right to record officers performing their duties
with limited exceptions and advises officers to hold off on taking enforcement action
until a supervisor can arrive at the scene. The best practice policy also
suggests that officers give specific direction to the individual on what he or
she can do to be compliant with public safety needs. For example, rather than seizing
a camera or commanding the person to leave the area, likely creating a Fourth
Amendment seizure issue, consider asking the person to move to the sidewalk
across the street or some other location where the person can still see and
record police activity, but not directly interfere with the officers’ duties.
The court held that officers are now on notice, at least in
the Fifth Circuit, that “a First Amendment right to record the police does exist, subject only to reasonable
time, place, and manner restrictions.” One judge dissented, distinguishing
between the right to film officers and Turner’s actions—recording a police
facility, not officers entering or leaving the facility.
Nonetheless, the two officers were not entitled to qualified
immunity on Fourth Amendment claims of an illegal arrest. The court had no
trouble ruling that Turner had been subjected to a de facto arrest without probable cause to believe that he had
committed a crime. Thus, the lawsuit for an illegal arrest and detention goes
back to the trial court and moves forward. Turner v. Driver, 2017 WL 650186 (5th
Dealing with the Police?
Expect to be Recorded
Paxton, his brother and three other men agreed to rob a drug
stash house. The person who enlisted their participation in the robbery was an
undercover officer posing as a courier for a Mexican cartel. Moreover, the
stash house was merely an empty warehouse chosen for the undercover operation.
Two of the men were arrested outside a restaurant. They were
placed in the back of a police transport van. The van featured steel walls and
Plexiglas windows separating the driver compartment from two rear confinement
compartments. Officers drove the van to the fake stash house, where the other
three men were arrested.
As the officers drove to the stash house, the first two men
made several inculpatory statements. Once the other three men were in the van,
they talked about the intended robbery. One of the men said that the van was
“probably bugged.” It was. The men spoke in low voices, but continued to make
admissions about the robbery plans.
When the prosecution tried to introduce the inculpatory
statements into evidence, the defendants asked that their statements be
suppressed. Paxton and his co-defendants argued that they had both a subjective
and objective expectation of privacy in the “mobile jail.” In support of their
claim, they noted the security features and argued that they spoke in low
voices, objectively intending that their conversation not be overheard.
The law is clear that there is no expectation of privacy in
the back of a patrol car. However, the trial court distinguished a patrol car
from a transport van. Sitting in a patrol car, an arrestee should be on notice
that any statements will be recorded. First, the patrol car is the officer’s mobile
office and also a mobile jail. Second, the dashboard area of a patrol car “visibly
bristles” with electronic equipment that ought to signal to anyone seated in
the car that a recording device is among the bells and whistles and sirens and
radios of the car.
Unlike the patrol car, according to the trial court, the
transport van featured solid steel confinement dividers and double Plexiglas
windows separating the front, where officers sit, and the confinement
compartments. Further, though the recording devices were capable of real-time
monitoring by the police van driver to facilitate security monitoring during
the transport, that feature was not activated. The court ruled that these
distinctions gave the defendants a reasonable expectation of privacy.
The court of appeals disagreed and reversed. It acknowledged
the distinction between a patrol car and a transport van, but held that society
does not recognize an expectation of privacy for an arrestee detained in the
back of a marked official police vehicle. Notably, citing the proliferation of body-worn
cameras on police and recording by citizens with smart phone cameras, the court
also stated, “We are fast approaching a day when police interactions with
civilians, including detainees, will be recorded from beginning to end.” Therefore,
Paxton and his criminal cohort should have expected the van was—as they
suspected—equipped with recording devices. United States v. Paxton, 2017 WL
655432 (7th Cir. 2017)
I Can See “Clearly” Now
Many lawsuits against police officers are stopped short of a
trial by the qualified immunity doctrine, which protects officers from suit
when the officers’ actions don’t violate “clearly established” rights. But just
what does it mean to say that a right is “clearly established”?
Officers responded to a call of a probable drunk driver
“swerving all crazy.” The complainants followed the suspect driver, Daniel
Pauly, and flashed bright lights. Pauly pulled over and confronted the
complainants. He then drove home, just a short distance away. The complainants
called the police and provided Pauly’s registration number.
Three officers responded to the location of the
confrontation. One remained there as the other two drove to Pauly’s house. The
officers surreptitiously—sort of—approached the house where Pauly and his
brother were moving around. The Pauly brothers heard the officers sneaking up
and they called out, “Who are you, what do you want?” The officers laughed and
said that they had the house surrounded. Then they identified themselves as the
The Pauly brothers armed themselves and shouted that they
had guns. Daniel Pauly stepped into a doorway and fired two blasts from a
shotgun. Samuel Pauly aimed a handgun at an officer. The officer fired and
missed. The third officer, White, had just arrived from the scene of the
initial report. Seeing Samuel aim at the other officer, he fatally shot Samuel
Daniel Pauley, suing on his own behalf and on behalf of his
brother’s estate, claimed that the brothers only heard someone shout, “We’re
coming in.” Pauly asserted that the officers precipitated the force encounter
by sneaking up to the house without announcing themselves or their purpose,
leading the Pauly brothers to believe that intruders were approaching.
The Supreme Court decision of Tennessee
v. Garner (471 U. S. 1 (1985)) requires that a warning be given, where
feasible, prior to the use of deadly force. Officer White gave no warning. The trial
court denied qualified immunity to Officer White. The 10th Circuit Court of
Appeals agreed with the trial court. On rehearing by the appellate court
sitting en banc, 10th Circuit Court
Judge Hartz observed in a dissenting opinion that no “clearly established law
suggests … that an officer … who faces an occupant pointing a firearm in his
direction must refrain from firing his weapon but, rather, must identify
himself and shout a warning while pinned down, kneeling behind a rock wall.”
The Supreme Court reversed the 10th Circuit’s decision to
deny qualified immunity. The Court held that Officer White “did not violate
clearly established law on the record described by the Court of Appeals panel.”
The Court pointedly reiterated the longstanding principle that “clearly
established law” should not be defined “at a high level of generality.” The
10th Circuit, the Court said, “misunderstood the ‘clearly established’
analysis: It failed to identify a case where an officer acting under similar circumstances”
had been determined by a court to violate the Fourth Amendment. Without
identifying such a case, the 10th Circuit failed to clearly establish the law
that should have given notice to Officer White that his conduct was unlawful.
The Supreme Court’s plain message to lower courts is that
the “clearly established law” component of the qualified immunity analysis
cannot be applied at “too high a level of generality.” Practically speaking,
expect attorneys defending officers to more frequently—and with greater
success—pursue qualified immunity by arguing that prior cases are too
dissimilar to give officers clear and precise guidance on what conduct is
“clearly established” as wrongful under the Fourth Amendment. White v. Pauly, 2017 WL 69170 (U.S. 2017) (per curiam)
Is Man’s Best Friend
Protected by the Fourth Amendment?
A confidential informant reported that Jones was selling
drugs from a house owned by Nesbitt. Cheryl Brown and Mark Brown lived in the
basement. Officers also found baggies with residue of marijuana and cocaine
from a trash pull. The officers obtained a search warrant for the residence. Neither
of the Browns were targets of the investigation.
Jones was well known to the police, with a history of
violent gang involvement, significant drug history, prior foot and car chases,
shootings and gun possession. Jones had “maxed out” his last prison sentence
and had been released just a few weeks prior to the search warrant. The
officers decided to ask a tactical team to enter and secure the house prior to
As officers approached the house, they encountered Mark
Brown, who had come home from work at lunch to let his two dogs out. He told an
officer that no one else was home, but that his two dogs were in the house. He
also said that he had a key to the house. That information was not relayed to
the tactical team.
As the officers approached, they could see the dogs jumping
and pawing at the front window. When the first officer breached the door to the
house, he perceived that one of the dogs lunged at him. He shot the dog in the
head. The dog ran down the stairs. Seeing that the dog was still moving and
barking, the officer shot the dog twice more, killing it. The second dog had
run to a back corner of the basement. Another officer saw the second dog
“moving” out of the corner and he shot the second dog. A third officer shot the
second dog again to “put her out of her misery.”
The Browns sued, claiming that the officers violated the
Fourth Amendment by unreasonably seizing (by killing) their dogs. They also
asserted that the city had failed to train its officers to deal with dogs in
homes and that the city had inadequate policies that led to the alleged
constitutional violation. The trial court granted summary judgment to the
The court of appeals began its discussion by agreeing with
every other circuit on the point that household pet dogs are personal property
and the unreasonable seizure of them is unconstitutional (no disrespect to cat
lovers, but I’ve never found a similar judicial decision applying to felines). Notwithstanding,
the court opined that the trial court had properly credited the testimony of
the officers who felt threatened by the dogs as they tried to execute the
The appellate court held that the Browns failed to show a
policy or practice of unconstitutional action relating to shooting dogs during
enforcement actions. The court noted that failing to provide policy and
training to deal with household dogs in such circumstances “may well become a
viable claim as we move forward, but ... on the present record the one thing that’s
clear is that there isn’t much of a policy [or] practice ... throughout the
country, on how to deal with this beyond the general statements of how officers
are supposed to respond to resistance.” Brown v.
Battle Creek Police Department, 844 F.3d 556 (6th Cir. 2016)
Officers in Colorado, Illinois, Ohio, Tennessee and Texas
are subject to state law requiring some training to prevent dog shootings. Enactment
of these laws has usually followed a particularly ugly incident that brought grief
to the dog owner and substantial ill will for the law enforcement agency. Agencies
paid nearly $2 million to settle claims when officers shot and killed a
Rottweiler and two Bullmastiffs during searches of the San Jose Hells Angels
clubhouse and several gang members’ houses. (See San
Jose Charter of the Hells Angels Motorcycle Club v. City of San Jose,
402 F.3d 962 (9th Cir. 2005)).
Many other states have voluntary training programs or
partnerships with local animal protection groups to educate officers on dealing
with unfriendly dogs. There are also training resources available from the
Department of Justice COPS Office and on YouTube. Begin by learning how the Kansas
City (MO) Police Department drastically changed community perceptions as explained
by one of America’s top tactical commanders, Commander Chip Huth.